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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression analysis assessing factors associated with the occurrence of Shoulders, neck and/or upper limb pain in a representative sample of 8000 Italian workers

From: Prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders in Italian workers: is there an underestimation of the related occupational risk factors?

Variable OR 95% CI
Sex
 Male ref  
 Female 2.00 1.80–2.22
Age
 19–24 0.96 0.75–1.22
 25–34 1.06 0.92–1.21
 35–44 ref  
 45–54 1.16 1.03–1.31
 55–64 1.22 1.05–1.43
Educational level
 Lower secondary ref  
 Upper secondary 0.78 0.69–0.89
 Graduate and post graduate 0.67 0.57–0.78
BMI
 Underweight 1.33 0.95–1.87
 Normal ref  
 Overweight 1.17 1.05–1.30
 Obese 1.34 1.12–1.61
Firm size
 1 to 9 ref  
 10 to 49 1.11 0.95–1.31
 50–249 1.22 1.04–1.44
  ≥ 250 1.16 1.00–1.35
Biomechanical and Ergonomic risk
 No Risk Perceived/No Risk Detected ref  
 Risk Perceived /Risk Detected 1.70 1.44–1.99
 No Risk Perceived/Risk Detected 0.86 0.70–1.07
 Risk Perceived /No Risk Detected 1.60 1.43–1.79
Video Display Terminal risk
 No Risk Perceived/No Risk Detected ref  
 Risk Perceived /Risk Detected 1.02 0.89–1.16
 No Risk Perceived/Risk Detected 0.79 0.65–0.96
 Risk Perceived /No Risk Detected 1.00 0.88–1.13
Work-related stress
 Low ref  
 Moderate 1.22 1.07–1.40
 High 1.44 1.24–1.67
 Very high 1.78 1.53–2.08
Anxiety
 No ref  
 Yes 1.54 1.34–1.77
Depression
 No ref  
 Yes 1.36 1.12–1.65
Insomnia
 No ref  
 Yes 1.75 1.56–1.97
Training on health and safety at work
 Yes 0.82 0.73–0.92
 No ref