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Table 2 Exposure profiles for assistive devices

From: Physical exposure during patient transfer and risk of back injury & low-back pain: prospective cohort study

Assistive device Index EMG Forward flexion Lateral flexion
No assistive device 1 1 1 1
Hospital bed 0.8600 0.9211 0.5492 1.0486
Intelligent bed 0.8246 0.8566 0.6792 0.9060
Bed sheet 1.0289 1.0968 1.0065 0.9155
Walking aids 1.0200 0.9892 1.0440 1.0573
Masterturner 0.8582 0.9606 0.7903 0.7215
Sliding sheet 1.0109 1.0860 1.0455 0.8259
Ceiling-lift 0.7762 0.8602 0.6123 0.7721
Sliding board 1.0264 1.2007 1.0788 0.6253
Standing aids 0.8517 0.9283 0.8372 0.7130
  1. Exposure profiles based on the weighted contribution of EMG, forward- and lateral flexion values obtained during full-day field measurements of patient transfers performed in hospitals [34]