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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of women who initiated bisphosphonate treatment

From: Risk of complete atypical femur fracture with Oral bisphosphonate exposure beyond three years

Characteristics All Women (N = 87,820)
Cohort entry year before 2008 47,771 (54.4%)
Age, mean ± SD 68.6 ± 9.1
Race/Ethnicity
 White 57,680 (65.7%)
 African-American/Black 3321 (3.8%)
 Hispanic/Latina 9177 (10.4%)
 Asian/Pacific-Islander 15,761 (17.9%)
 Other/Mixed/Unknown 1881 (2.1%)
Index Body Mass Index Category (kg/m2)
 Normal/Underweight (BMI < 25) 46,399 (52.8%)
 Overweight (BMI 25 to < 30) 28,354 (32.3%)
 Obese (BMI ≥30) 13,067 (14.9%)
Current Smoking 12,729 (14.5%)
Estimated low educational attainment based on US Census block 11,313 (12.9%)
Estimated low household income based on US Census block 5013 (5.7%)
Charlson Comorbidity Index (Deyo modification)
 0 50,993 (58.1%)
 1–2 27,285 (31.1%)
 ≥ 3 9542 (10.9%)
History of medical conditions
 Diabetes 6544 (7.5%)
 Rheumatoid arthritis 3000 (3.4%)
 Grade 3 chronic kidney disease (eGFR 59–30 mL/min/1.7m2) 15,350 (17.5%)
 Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 20 ng/mL) 14,459 (16.5%)
Relevant medication exposures
 Estrogen 5355 (6.1%)
 Raloxifene 355 (0.4%)
 Aromatase inhibitors 1792 (2.0%)
 Proton pump inhibitors 10,070 (11.5%)
 Glucocorticoids (prednisone equivalent 1825 mg/year) 3401 (3.9%)
Fracture history in the five years prior to bisphosphonate initiation
 Major osteoporotic fracture a 12,575 (14.3%)
 Any clinical fracture 23,391 (26.6%)
Bone mineral density 63,595 (72.4%)
 T-Score, median (IQR) −2.6 (−3.0, − 2.0)
 Osteoporosis b 37,420 (58.8%)
 Osteopenia b 23,549 (37.0%)
  1. Numbers represent N (percent) unless otherwise indicated
  2. a Includes fractures of the hip, humerus, wrist, or spine
  3. b Osteoporosis defined as: T-score ≤ − 2.5; Osteopenia defined as: − 2.5 < T-score < − 1.0