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Table 5 Overall mean range of shoulder movement in degrees for those with and without diabetes adjusted for age and sex

From: Shoulder range of movement in the general population: age and gender stratified normative data using a community-based cohort

  No diabetes (n = 2229) Diabetes (n = 150)
Mean (SD)
Left shoulder flexion 158.9 (16.3)* 154.2 (16.7)*
Right shoulder flexion 160.3 (17.2)* 156.0 (17.7)*
Left shoulder abduction 149.1 (18.2)* 143.3 (18.7)*
Right shoulder abduction 151.0 (18.5)* 144.2 (19.1)*
Left shoulder external rotation 56.9 (17.0)* 52.5 (17.6)*
Right shoulder external rotation 59.0 (17.0)* 55.0 (17.5)*
  1. *Statistically significantly different active range between those with and without diabetes, adjusted for age and sex, MANOVA p < 0.05