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Table 2 Incidence of stroke in patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar fusion during various risk windows

From: The incidence of stroke among selected patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar fusion: a retrospective cohort study

Stroke incidence type During index hospitalization Up to 30 days post-operation Up to 90 days post-operation Up to 180 days post-operation Up to 365 days post-operation
Number of patients at risk Number of cases Years at risk Incidence proportion(95% confidence interval) Number of patients at risk Number of cases Years at risk Incidence proportion(95% confidence interval) Number of patients at risk Number of cases Years at risk Incidence proportion(95% confidence interval) Number of patients at risk Number of cases Years at risk Incidence proportion(95% confidence interval) Number of patients at risk Number of cases Years at risk Incidence proportion(95% confidence interval)
Crude 42,742 126 550.03 0.29% (0.25, 0.35%) 42,744 186 3523.41 0.44% (0.38, 0.50%) 42,745 252 9833.32 0.59% (0.52, 0.67%) 42,746 327 18,712.01 0.76% (0.68, 0.85%) 42,750 480 35,079.03 1.12% (1.03, 1.23%)
Stratifications by:
Age (years)
  ≥ 18–55 15,181 17 179.62 0.11% (0.07, 0.18%) 15,181 25 1251.95 0.16% (0.11, 0.24%) 15,181 36 3498.67 0.24% (0.17, 0.33%) 15,181 44 6673.80 0.29% (0.21, 0.39%) 15,181 61 12,537.16 0.40% (0.31, 0.52%)
 56–65 11,588 22 146.04 0.19% (0.12, 0.29%) 11,590 39 956.04 0.34% (0.24, 0.46%) 11,591 53 2662.86 0.46% (0.34, 0.60%) 11,591 70 5058.52 0.60% (0.47, 0.76%) 11,593 105 9446.15 0.91% (0.74, 1.10%)
 66–75 11,438 51 157.62 0.45% (0.33, 0.59%) 11,438 71 942.84 0.62% (0.49, 0.78%) 11,438 90 2634.55 0.79% (0.63, 0.97%) 11,438 127 5009.82 1.11% (0.93, 1.32%) 11,440 190 9383.93 1.66% (1.43, 1.91%)
 76 - < 86 4535 36 66.74 0.79% (0.56, 1.10%) 4535 51 372.57 1.12% (0.84, 1.48%) 4535 73 1037.24 1.61% (1.26, 2.02%) 4536 86 1969.88 1.90% (1.52, 2.34%) 4536 124 3711.79 2.73% (2.28, 3.25%)
Sex
 Male 20,404 64 256.25 0.31% (0.24, 0.40%) 20,405 96 1680.10 0.47% (0.38, 0.57%) 20,405 129 4681.68 0.63% (0.53, 0.75%) 20,406 175 8898.68 0.86% (0.74, 0.99%) 20,409 258 16,640.24 1.26% (1.12, 1.43%)
 Female 22,325 62 293.61 0.28% (0.21, 0.36%) 22,326 90 1842.21 0.40% (0.32, 0.50%) 22,327 123 5148.73 0.55% (0.46, 0.66%) 22,327 152 9807.71 0.68% (0.58, 0.80%) 22,328 222 18,427.89 0.99% (0.87, 1.13%)
 Unknown 13 0 0.17 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%) 13 0 1.10 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%) 13 0 2.91 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%) 13 0 5.62 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%) 13 0 10.90 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%)
Race
 White 38,246 113 487.13 0.30% (0.24, 0.36%) 38,248 160 3154.63 0.42% (0.36, 0.49%) 38,249 218 8814.21 0.57% (0.50, 0.65%) 38,250 286 16,787.98 0.75% (0.66, 0.84%) 38,254 419 31,522.14 1.10% (0.99, 1.20%)
 Black or African American 2545 9 36.89 0.35% (0.16, 0.67%) 2545 17 210.81 0.67% (0.39, 1.07%) 2545 23 585.70 0.90% (0.57, 1.35%) 2545 28 1108.84 1.10% (0.73, 1.59%) 2545 42 2063.04 1.65% (1.19, 2.22%)
 Asian 212 0 3.33 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%) 212 0 17.43 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%) 212 1 49.07 0.47% (0.01, 2.60%) 212 2 93.98 0.94% (0.11, 3.37%) 212 3 172.13 1.42% (0.29, 4.08%)
 Other/Unknown 1739 4 22.68 0.23% (0.06, 0.59%) 1739 9 140.54 0.52% (0.24, 0.98%) 1739 10 384.34 0.58% (0.28, 1.06%) 1739 11 721.21 0.63% (0.32, 1.13%) 1739 16 1321.71 0.92% (0.53, 1.49%)
Type 1 Diabetes during baseline
 Yes 270 1 3.85 0.37% (0.01, 2.05%) 270 2 22.56 0.74% (0.09, 2.65%) 271 3 64.50 1.11% (0.23, 3.20%) 271 4 123.85 1.48% (0.40, 3.74%) 271 9 231.14 3.32% (1.53, 6.21%)
 No 42,472 125 546.17 0.29% (0.25, 0.35%) 42,474 184 3500.85 0.43% (0.37, 0.50%) 42,474 249 9768.82 0.59% (0.52, 0.66%) 42,475 323 18,588.16 0.76% (0.68, 0.85%) 42,479 471 34,847.88 1.11% (1.01, 1.21%)
Type 2 Diabetes during baseline
 Yes 5923 23 82.24 0.39% (0.25, 0.58%) 5923 42 492.66 0.71% (0.51, 0.96%) 5924 58 1394.58 0.98% (0.74, 1.26%) 5924 81 2672.70 1.37% (1.09, 1.70%) 5926 123 5026.02 2.08% (1.73, 2.47%)
 No 36,819 103 467.78 0.28% (0.23, 0.34%) 36,821 144 3030.75 0.39% (0.33, 0.46%) 36,821 194 8438.74 0.53% (0.46, 0.61%) 36,822 246 16,039.31 0.67% (0.59, 0.76%) 36,824 357 30,053.01 0.97% (0.87, 1.07%)
Existing permanently implanted device or prosthesis at baseline
 Yes 1242 0 17.80 0.00% (0.00, 0.00%) 1242 1 102.71 0.08% (0.00, 0.45%) 1242 1 287.33 0.08% (0.00, 0.45%) 1242 4 547.00 0.32% (0.09, 0.82%) 1242 8 1019.47 0.64% (0.28, 1.27%)
 No 41,500 126 532.23 0.30% (0.25, 0.36%) 41,502 185 3420.70 0.45% (0.38, 0.51%) 41,503 251 9545.98 0.60% (0.53, 0.68%) 41,504 323 18,165.01 0.78% (0.70, 0.87%) 41,508 472 34,059.56 1.14% (1.04, 1.24%)
Total length of hospital stay
 1–5 days 37,077 60 393.57 0.16% (0.12, 0.21%) 37,079 104 3053.66 0.28% (0.23, 0.34%) 37,080 148 8514.74 0.40% (0.34, 0.47%) 37,081 209 16,198.14 0.56% (0.49, 0.65%) 37,084 336 30,364.03 0.91% (0.81, 1.01%)
 6–10 days 4530 43 98.86 0.95% (0.69, 1.28%) 4530 57 375.63 1.26% (0.95, 1.63%) 4530 70 1054.52 1.55% (1.21, 1.95%) 4530 80 2012.51 1.77% (1.40, 2.19%) 4530 99 3774.44 2.19% (1.78, 2.65%)
  > 10 days 1135 23 57.60 2.03% (1.29, 3.03%) 1135 25 94.11 2.20% (1.43, 3.23%) 1135 34 264.06 3.00% (2.08, 4.16%) 1135 38 501.35 3.35% (2.38, 4.57%) 1136 45 940.55 3.96% (2.90, 5.26%)
Use of implanted material during surgery on the same day as index surgery
 Yes 3095 11 44.45 0.36% (0.18, 0.64%) 3095 16 255.45 0.52% (0.30, 0.84%) 3095 19 714.26 0.61% (0.37, 0.96%) 3095 32 1373.09 1.03% (0.71, 1.46%) 3095 44 2626.26 1.42% (1.03, 1.90%)
 No 39,647 115 505.58 0.29% (0.24, 0.35%) 39,649 170 3267.96 0.43% (0.37, 0.50%) 39,650 233 9119.06 0.59% (0.51, 0.67%) 39,651 295 17,338.92 0.74% (0.66, 0.83%) 39,655 436 32,452.77 1.10% (1.00, 1.21%)
Medical history of stroke
 Yes 291 39 4.59 13.40% (9.71, 17.86%) 292 58 20.47 19.86% (15.44, 24.91%) 292 77 54.44 26.37% (21.41, 31.82%) 292 84 100.04 28.77% (23.64, 34.33%) 292 106 177.45 36.30% (30.78, 42.11%)
 No 42,451 87 545.43 0.20% (0.16, 0.25%) 42,452 128 3502.94 0.30% (0.25, 0.36%) 42,453 175 9778.87 0.41% (0.35, 0.48%) 42,454 243 18,611.98 0.57% (0.50, 0.65%) 42,458 374 34,901.58 0.88% (0.79, 0.97%)