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Table 3 Mean differences within-group and between-groups at post-treatment in the studied variables (mean ± standard deviation or (95% confidence interval)

From: Effects of exercise combined with whole body vibration in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomised-controlled clinical trial

Group Baseline Post-treatment Within-group mean changes Between-groups mean changes
LEFS, points
 Control 48 ± 17.1 50 ± 17.0 2 (1 to 4) 20.0 (10 to 29) ††
 WBV 53 ± 21.3 70 ± 16.0 17 (13 to 20) **
KUJALA, points
 Control 52 ± 15.1 52 ± 13.0 0 (−3 to 3) * 19.0 (10 to 27) ††
 WBV 50 ± 23.4 71 ± 15.6 21 (14 to 28)**
DN4, points
 Control 3.4 ± 1.5 2.1 ± 1.2 1.3 (0.9 to 1.6) ** 1.9 (1.3 to 2.4) ††
 WBV 4.2 ± 2.1 0.2 ± .5 4 (3.1 to 4.9) **
VAS, mm
 Control 59 ± 13.6 54 ± 14.1 5 (2 to 9)* 44.0 (35 to 52)††
 WBV 56 ± 20.2 10 ± 15.4 46 (37 to 55)**
KNEE ROMFLEX,(°)
 Control 115 ± 10.9 110 ± 13.2 5 (0 to − 7)* 23.0 (16 to 28)††
 WBV 120 ± 12.0 133 ± 7.3 13 (9 to 15)**
KNEE ROMEXT (°)
 Control 0.4 ± 1.4 0.2 ± 1 0.2 (− 0.2 to 0.6) 0.2 (−0.5 to 0.9)
 WBV 1 ± 2 0.4 ± 1.4 0.6 (− 0.08 to 1.3)
  1. Abbreviations: WBV, whole body vibration; LEFS-lower extremity functional scale; DN4, Douleur Neuropathique-4 items questionnaire; VAS, visual analogue scale; ROMFLEX, knee flexion range of motion; ROMEXT, knee extension range of motion
  2. * Indicates statistically significant within-group differences (p < 0.05)
  3. ** Indicates statistically significant within-group differences (p < 0.001)
  4. †† Indicates statistically significant between-groups differences (p < 0.001)