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Table 4 Comparison of differences in blood loss

From: Utilization of epinephrine-soaked gauzes to address bleeding from osteotomy sites in non-tourniquet total knee arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study

  Epinephrine group (N = 51) No epinephrine group (N = 50) P value
Calculated blood lossa# (mL) 735.9 (293.7) 847.7 (333.8) 0.26†
Intraoperative blood lossa (ml) 175.3 (83.7) 170.5 (80.9) 0.87†
Hidden blood lossa ## (ml) 576.6 (229.3) 693.2 (302.9) 0.04†
Transfusionb 0.99§
 None 49 (96.1%) 48 (96%)  
 2 unit 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
 4 units 2 (3.9%) 2 (4.0%)  
  1. aThe values are given as the mean and the standard deviation
  2. bThe values are given as the number of patients, with the percentage in parentheses
  3. †Significance was determined with use of Independent-Sample T test
  4. §significance was determined with use of the Fisher exact test
  5. # PBV (Patient’s blood volume) = k1 x height^3 (m) + k2 x weight (kg) + k3, where k1 = 0.3669, k2 = 0.03219, and k3 = 0.6041 for men; and k1 = 0.3561, k2 = 0.03308, and k3 = 0.1833 for women; Total blood loss = PBV x (preoperative Hct – postoperative Hct)
  6. ## Hidden blood loss = Total blood loss – Intraoperative blood loss + Allogeneic blood transfusion