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Table 2 Surgeon-rated difficulty in visualization

From: Utilization of epinephrine-soaked gauzes to address bleeding from osteotomy sites in non-tourniquet total knee arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study

  Before Epinephrinea Before Cementinga P value
Epinephrine group No epinephrine group Epinephrine group No epinephrine group
(N = 51) (N = 50) (N = 51) (N = 50)
0 No Difficulty 0 (0.0%) NA 42 (82.3%) 41 (82.0%) < 0.01§#
0.96§##
1 Some difficulty, but did not affect the case 6 (11.8%) NA 8 (15.7%) 8 (16.0%)
2 Moderate difficulty 12 (23.5%) NA 1 (2.0%) 1 (2.0%)
3 Severe difficulty 33 (64.7%) NA 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
  1. aThe values are given as the number of patients, with the percentage in parentheses
  2. §Significance was determined with use of the Mann-Whitney U test
  3. # P value was calculated for difference in Epinephrine group between before and after use of epinephrine
  4. ## P value was calculated for difference between Epinephrine and No Epinephrine groups before cementing