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Table 1 Patient demographic characteristics

From: Utilization of epinephrine-soaked gauzes to address bleeding from osteotomy sites in non-tourniquet total knee arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study

  Epinephrine group (N = 51) No epinephrine group (N = 50) P value
Agea (yr) 67.1 (8.6) 66.8 (8.9) 0.88†
Sexb 0.34#
 Male 4 (7.8%) 8 (16.0%)  
 Female 47 (92.2%) 42 (84.0%)  
BMIa (kg/m^2) 25.8 (3.2) 26.2 (3.4) 0.55†
Starting hemoglobina (g/dL) 131.8 (12.3) 132.4 (14.3) 0.22†
ASA classificationb 0.32§
 1 (normal, healthy) 20 (39.2%) 19 (38.0%)  
 2 (mild, systemic disease) 30 (58.8%) 29 (58.0%)  
 3 (severe systemic disease) 1 (2.0%) 3 (6.0%)  
Preoperative diagnosisb 0.99**
 Osteoarthritis 50 (98.0%) 48 (96.0%)  
 Rheumatoid arthritis 1 (2.0%) 2 (4.0%)  
 Tourniquet timea (min) NA 61.1 (7.8)  
 Operating timea (min) 81.6 (12.1) 80.9 (9.3) 0.76†
 Follow-up durationa (day) 28.5 (2.5) 28.2 (2.6) 0.41†
  1. aThe values are given as the mean and the standard deviation
  2. bThe values are given as the number of patients, with the percentage in parentheses
  3. †Significance was determined with use of Independent-Sample T test
  4. § Significance was determined with use of the Mann-Whitney U test
  5. # Significance was determined with use of the chi-square test
  6. **Significance was determined with use of the Fisher exact test