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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients (n = 40)

From: Clinical features as predictors of histologically confirmed inflammation in patients with lumbar disc herniation with associated radiculopathy

Characteristic Mean (SD) or N (%)
Age (years) 43.5 (14.7)
Gender (Male) 31 (77.5%)
Smoker 8 (20.0%)
Compensation claim 10 (25.0%)
Back pain (VAS /10) 5.3 (2.1)
Leg pain (VAS /10) 6.3 (2.3)
Pain or paraesthesia below knee 37 (92.5%)
First episode 17 (42.5%)
Duration of symptoms (current episode)
 1 week – 1 month 8 (20.0%)
 2–3 months 8 (20.0%)
 4–6 months 13 (32.5%)
 7–12 months 2 (5.0%)
 > 12 months 9 (22.5%)
Activity limitation (Oswestry) 40.1 (15.8)
Örebro score 115.7 (22.8)
MRI findings
 Herniation type
  Bulge or normal 1 (2.5%)
  Protrusion 16 (40.0%)
  Extrusion 21 (52.5%)
  Sequestration 1 (2.5%)
 Nerve root involvement
  None 0 (0.0%)
  Contact 2 (5.0%)
  Displacement 6 (15%)
  Compression 31 (77.5%)
 Annular tear
  None 4 (10.3%)
  Mild tear 23 (59.0%)
  Severe tear 12 (30.8%)
Physical examination findings:
 Ipsilateral SLR: mean (SD) degrees 50.2 (17.8)
 Contralateral SLR: mean (SD) degrees 69.5 (15.8)
 Neurological deficit (affected side)  
  Reflex deficit 28 (70.0%)
  Myotomal deficit 16 (40.0%)
  Dermatomal deficit 31 (77.5%)
 At least one neurological deficit 38 (95.0%)
  1. SD Standard deviation, N Number of patients, % Percentage, VAS Visual analogue scale, SLR Straight Leg Raise, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, Örebro Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire