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Table 2 Shoulder RoM with and without GIRD. Data are displayed as mean ± standard deviation and range, if not stated otherwise. Differences of dominant compared to non-dominant arm

From: Injury and training history are associated with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in youth tennis athletes

  All athletes No pathological GIRD athletes Pathological GIRD athletes
Relative IR side asymmetry/ratio (%) 0.9 ± 0.2
0.5 – 1.4
1.0 ± 0.2
0.8 – 1.4
0.7 ± 0.1
0.5 – 0.8
Absolute IR side asymmetry/ratio (°) − 7.1 ± 19.5
− 65.0 - 30.0
−0.4 ± 12.9
− 17.0 - 30.0
−36.4 ± 17.1
− 65.0 - (-20.0)
ER/IR ratio 1.1 ± 0.2
0.7 – 1.5
1.0 ± 0.2
0.7 – 1.5
1.4 ± 0.2
1.2 – 1.5