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Table 1 The incidence of spinous process violation and pedicle wall penetration

From: Risk of pedicle and spinous process violation during cortical bone trajectory screw placement in the lumbar spine

Complication L1 (mm)   L2 (mm)   L3 (mm)   L4 (mm)   L5 (mm)
4.5 5.0 5.5   4.5 5.0 5.5   4.5 5.0 5.5   4.5 5.0 5.5   4.5 5.0 5.5
A (%)                    
Male 62.5 64.6 65.6   52.1 52.1 53.1   25.0 26.0 26.0   0 0 0   0 0 0
Female 75.0 77.3 77.3   54.8 56.0 56.0   26.1 27.4 28.6   3.6 3.6 3.6   0 0 0
Total 68.3 70.5 71.1   53.3 53.8 54.4   25.5 26.7 27.2   1.7 1.7 1.7   0 0 0
p Valuea 0.072 0.060 0.083   0.719 0.603 0.704   0.855 0.839 0.704   0.100 0.100 0.100  
B (%)                    
Male 13.5 19.8 29.1   8.3 22.9 32.9   1.0 8.3 20.8   0 1.0 3.1   3.1 7.3 12.5
Female 20.2 32.1 42.8   17.8 29.7 36.9   4.8 17.8 27.4   2.4 6.0 10.7   10.7 16.6 21.4
Total 16.7 25.5 35.5   12.7 26.1 34.4   2.8 12.7 23.8   1.1 3.3 6.7   6.7 11.7 16.7
p Valuea 0.229 0.058 0.056   0.056 0.297 0.516   0.186 0.056 0.304   0.216 0.099 0.069   0.069 0.051 0.066
C (%)                    
Male 2.1 4.2 14.5   0 1.0 9.4   0 0 0   0 0 0   0 0 0
Female 6.0 10.0 14.2   2.4 3.6 6.0   0 0 4.8   0 0 0   0 0 0
Total 3.9 6.7 14.4   1.1 2.2 7.8   0 0 2.2   0 0 0   0 0 0
p Valuea 0.254 0.231 0.955   0.216 0.340 0.392   0.186   
  1. A Spinous process violation, B Screw penetration through the inner wall of pedicle, C Screw penetration through the outer wall of pedicle, L Lumbar
  2. a Comparison between genders