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Table 3 Strengthening exercise protocol, with progressions (where applicable)

From: Technology versus tradition: a non-inferiority trial comparing video to face-to-face consultations with a physiotherapist for people with knee osteoarthritis. Protocol for the PEAK randomised controlled trial

Maximum of 6 exercises at any one time, performed three times/week
2 quadriceps strengthening exercises
1 hip abduction/gluteal strengthening exercise
1 hamstring/gluteal strengthening exercise
1 calf strengthening exercise
1 other exercise as appropriate
1. Quads strengthening
Knee extension Non weight-bearing Q1. Seated knee extension Progression: Increase resistance with elastic band – red through to black
Non weight-bearing Q2. Inner range quads over roll  
Sit-to-stand Weight-bearing Q3. Sit to stand without using hands Progression: lower chair height, hover above the seat without touching down, add resistance band around knees and push outwards while performing sit to stand
Weight-bearing Q4. Asymmetrical chair stands (with more weight on arthritis leg)  
Steps Weight-bearing Q5. Step-ups Progression: Increase step height
Weight-bearing Q6. Forward touch-downs from a step Progression: Increase step height, don’t touch floor
Weight-bearing Q7. Step-ups with weight Progression: Increase step height, increase weight
Weight-bearing Q8. Forward touch-downs with weight Progression: Increase step height, increase weight
Wall squats Weight-bearing Q9. Partial wall squats Progression: Halfway hold in bent-knee position, increase the amount of body weight taken through the arthritis knee.
Weight-bearing Q10. Split leg wall squats  
Controlled squats Weight-bearing Q11. Controlled squats (with back of chair support)  
Controlled knee flexion/extension Weight-bearing Q12. Controlled knee flexion/extension with forwards/backwards sliding of opposite leg  
Weight-bearing Q13. Controlled knee flexion/extension with forwards/backwards sliding of opposite leg with elastic band Progression: Increase resistance by changing elastic band colour – red through to black
Weight-bearing Q16. Controlled knee flexion/extension with sideways sliding of opposite leg  
Weight-bearing Q17. Controlled knee flexion/extension with elastic band and sideways sliding of opposite leg Progression: Increase resistance by changing elastic band colour – red through to black
Step to single leg balance Weight-bearing Q14. Step to standing balance on semi-flexed knee  
Weight-bearing Q15. Step to standing balance on semi-flexed knee with arm movements  
2. Hip abductor/gluteal strengthening
Standing hip abduction Non weight-bearing HA1. Side leg raises in standing with elastic band. Progression: Increase resistance by changing elastic band colour – red through to black, add halfway hold
  Weight- bearing HA3. Wall push with opposite leg, standing on straight arthritis leg Progression: Hold weight in hand, increase the hold time
Weight- bearing HA4. Wall push with opposite leg, standing on arthritis leg with deeper knee bending  
Side stepping Weight-bearing HA2. Crab walking with elastic band Progression: Increase resistance by changing elastic band colour – red through to black
3. Hamstring/gluteal strengthening
Supine bridging Weight-bearing HG1. Bridge with hold  
Weight-bearing HG2. Split leg bridge with hold  
Weight-bearing HG3. Single-leg bridge with hold  
Standing knee flexion Non weight-bearing HG4. Hamstring curls standing over bench  
Non weight-bearing HG5. Hamstring curls standing over bench with elastic band Progression: Increase resistance by changing elastic band colour – red through to black
Seated knee flexion Non weight-bearing HG6. Seated knee flexion with elastic band Progression: Increase resistance by changing elastic band colour – red through to black
Standing hip extension Non weight-bearing HG7. Hip extension with knee bent (90°) standing over a bench  
Non weight-bearing HG8. Hip extension with knee straight standing over a bench  
Non weight-bearing HG9. Hip extension with knee straight with elastic band standing over a bench Progression: Increase resistance by changing elastic band colour – red through to black
4. Calf strengthening
Standing plantar-flexion Weight-bearing C1. Double leg calf raises  
Weight-bearing C2. Single leg calf raises  
Weight-bearing C3. Double leg calf raises over edge of step  
Weight-bearing C4. Single leg calf raises over edge of step  
5. Balance (if appropriate)
Tandem stance Weight- bearing B1. Maintain balance in tandem stance Progression: remove hand support (if required), slowly raise arms in the air, eyes closed
Natural stance Weight- bearing B2. Maintain balance whilst tapping opposite foot forwards & backwards  
Single leg stance Weight- bearing B3. Maintain balance in single leg stance Progression: Increase hold time up, slowly raise arms up and down, eyes closed