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Table 2 Main behaviour change techniques that are incorporated into the intervention components for both trial arms

From: Technology versus tradition: a non-inferiority trial comparing video to face-to-face consultations with a physiotherapist for people with knee osteoarthritis. Protocol for the PEAK randomised controlled trial

Behaviours:
- Undertake strengthening exercise program
- Undertake negotiated physical activity plan
Behaviour change technique Written information Physiotherapist discussion Other
Consequences of behaviour
 Explanation of benefits of exercise & physical activity. OA Info booklet Consult #1  
 Explanation that exercise & physical activity will not make joint structural damage worse. OA Info booklet Consult #1  
Goal setting & action planning
 Use of a plan stating how often to exercise & which exercises to do (including dosage). Knee plan & log book Consults #1–5  
 Development of specific goals related to patient’s knee problems.   Consult #1 & 5 Pre-consultation survey
 Development of specific physical activity & step goals. Knee plan & log book Consults #2–5  
Barrier identification/planning
 Information & discussion about barriers to exercise & physical activity adherence, including problem-solving. OA Info booklet Consults #1–5  
Knee plan & log book
Exercise booklet
Behavioural grading & instruction
 Strengthening exercises are graded in number, intensity and/or difficulty to get progressively harder over time. Knee plan & log book Consults #1–5 Four graded resistance bands
Exercise booklet
 Physical activity is graded in duration, intensity and/or frequency to get progressively harder over time. OA Info booklet Consults #1–5  
Knee plan & log book
 Instruction in where, when and how to perform physical activity Knee plan & log book Consults #2–5  
 Instruction in where, when and how to perform strengthening exercises Knee plan & log book Consults #1–5 Four graded resistance bands
Exercise booklet
 Demonstration of how to perform strengthening exercises   Consults #1–5 Online video library
 Encouragement to join group exercise classes. OA Info booklet Consults #2–5  
 Encouraged to involve partner or family to join in with exercising & physical activity. OA Info booklet Consults #2–5  
Self-monitoring & feedback
 Encouraged to self-monitor exercise & physical activity Knee plan & log book Consults #1–5 Activity monitor
 Physiotherapist review of & and feedback on exercise & physical activity recorded Knee plan & log book Consults #2–5 Activity monitor
Relapse prevention
 Instruction on how to modify exercise & physical activity during flare-ups Exercise booklet Consults #1–5  
 Planning for set-backs in physical activity & how to overcome them   Consult #2  
 Dealing with lapses & set-backs with exercise & physical activity; use of constructive self-talk Exercise booklet Consult #5  
Pain & emotional control
 Encouragement to use activity pacing & pain coping activities (eg relaxation, pleasant imagery, mindfulness) OA Info booklet Consults #2 & 3  
 Tips for healthy sleep OA Info booklet Consult #3  
Prompts    
 Encouraged to use reminders to exercise. OA Info booklet   
Rewards
 Patient encouraged to use self-rewards for achieving exercise & physical activity goals OA Info booklet Consults #2–5  
 Physiotherapist congratulates adherence to exercise & physical activity   Consults #2–5  
Social comparison    
 Encourage reading of patient success stories OA Info booklet Consult #5  
Review
 Review of behavioural goals (exercise & physical activity) at follow-up.   Consults #2–5  
 Review of outcomes (pain and function) at follow-up.   Consults #2–5  
 Review, supervision and correction of strengthening exercise technique.   Consults #1–5