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Table 2 Clinical variables for cases and controls. Continuous variables are listed as median (1st, 3rd quartiles) with p value by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Categorical variables are listed as n (%) with odds ratio, its 95% CI and p value by conditional logistic regression

From: Sarcopenia, frailty and cachexia patients detected in a multisystem electronic health record database

  Cases Controls Odds Ratio (95% CI) P value
n 9594 9594   
Age 74.9 (62.2, 84.8) 74.3 (61.6, 84.2)   
Female 5663 (59%) 5663 (59%)   
Race
African American 981 (10%) 981 (10%)   
White 6599 (69%) 6599 (69%)   
Other 2014 (21%) 2014 (21%)   
BMI, kg/m2(n = 7952 cases and 4897 controls) 22.1 (18.9, 26.2) 28.1 (24.6, 32.5)   < 0.0001
Weight, kg (n = 8638 cases and 6006 controls) 60.7 (50.5, 73.8) 79.5 (65.9, 94.8)   < 0.0001
Albumin, mg/dl (n = 8686 cases and 5409 controls) 3.6 (3.1, 4.0) 4.1 (3.8, 4.3)   < 0.0001
Prealbumin, mg/dl (n = 1336 cases and 105 controls) 14 (9, 20) 20 (12, 25)   0.0215
Diabetes with complication 1247 (13) 337 (3.5) 4.33 (3.80, 4.94) < 0.0001
Diabetes without complications 2412 (25.1) 1547 (16.1) 1.80 (1.67, 1.94) < 0.0001
HgbA1C, % (n = 3379 cases and 1624 controls) 5.9 (5.5, 6.7) 6.0 (5.6, 6.7)   0.9205
Hypertension 6009 (62.6) 3621 (37.7) 3.26 (3.04, 3.49) < 0.0001
Cardiovascular disease 6769 (70.6) 3862 (40.3) 4.49 (4.17, 4.85) < 0.0001
Peripheral vascular disease 1809 (18.9) 590 (6.1) 3.76 (3.38, 4.17) < 0.0001
Chronic kidney disease stages 3–5 2142 (22.3) 690 (7.2) 3.96 (3.59, 4.38) < 0.0001
Chronic kidney disease stage 4 636 (6.6) 151 (1.6) 4.51 (3.75, 5.43) < 0.0001
Chronic kidney disease stage 5 or end stage kidney disease 462 (4.8) 63 (0.7) 8.39 (6.33, 11.12) < 0.0001
Any malignancy 2923 (30.5) 949 (9.9) 4.08 (3.75, 4.45) < 0.0001
Liver disease 1011 (10.5) 252 (2.6) 4.41 (3.82, 5.11) < 0.0001
Depression 1396 (14.6) 173 (1.8) 9.32 (7.86, 11.05) < 0.0001
AIDS 102 (1.1) 15 (0.2) 7.69 (4.32, 13.71) < 0.0001
Neurologic conditions 6205 (64.7) 2061 (21.5) 7.47 (6.87, 8.11) < 0.0001
Fractures (excludes fingers, toes, craniofacial fractures) 1094 (11.4) 321 (3.3) 3.78 (3.21, 4.32) < 0.0001
Osteoporosis 1501 (15.6) 604 (6.3) 3.03 (2.72, 3.37) < 0.0001
Charlson comorbidity index value 3 (1,6) 0 (0, 2)   < 0.0001
Charlson comorbidity index > 2 5700 (59) 1519 (16) 8.99 (8.22, 9.85) < 0.0001
Number of hospitalizations during 2016 ~ 2017 2 (0, 4) 0 (0, 0)   < 0.0001
Selected Medications post-index
Glucocorticoids 1200 (12.5) 1488 (15.5) 0.77 (0.71, 0.84) < 0.0001
Dronabinol 69 (0.7) 5 (0.1) 13.8 (5.57, 34.21) < 0.0001
Megestrol 93 (1.0) 19 (0.2) 4.90 (2.99, 8.02) < 0.0001
Caloric Supplement 30 (0.3) 12 (0.1) 2.50 (1.28, 4.88) 0.0073
Testosterone 14 (0.2) 36 (0.4) 0.39 (0.21, 0.72) 0.0027