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Table 2 Study characteristics

From: Effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises for alleviating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review

Study Study Design Sample Size Gender Age (mean ± SD)/ range Initial Cobb angles Curve magnitudes Bone Maturity (Risser sign) Intervention Protocols
Female Male Study group Control group
Liu et al [40] CCT 99 66 33 7–15 10°-24° 3 Rt. thoracic, 10 Lt. thoracic, 4 Rt. Lumbar, 13 Lt. Lumbar, 49 Rt. Thoracic with Lt. Lumbar, 20 Lt. Thoracic with Rt. lumbar 0: n = 37
1–2: n = 23
3: n = 39
Alternative SSE method (Xinmiao): corrective postures + corrective exercise:
40 min/session, education for 2 days then independently performed daily at home.
No control
Yagci et al [46, 47] RCT 30 30 0 12–16 20°-45° Rt. thoracic Lt. Lumbar: n = 16
Single thoracolumbar: n = 14
2: n = 14
3: n = 16
Brace + SEAS*
Supervised session: 40 min/session; once per week
Home Program: 20 min/day
Brace + core muscle strengthen exercise
same dosage with the study group
Yagci et al [46, 47] RCT 20 20 0 10–16 20°-45° King classification:
type 1: n = 5, type 2: n = 10, type 3: n = 3, type 4: n = 2
1: n = 2
2: n = 11
3: n = 7
Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) + Traditional Exercise + brace: home exercise 1 h/session, 5sessions/week Traditional Exercise only + brace
same dosage with the study group
Zheng et al [48] RCT 53 41 12 10–14 21°-36° Not reported Not Reported SEAS: supervised exercise in clinic: 40 min/week + home exercise: 10-15 min/day Brace: 23 h/day
Kwan et al [38] CCT 48 38 10 10–14 25°-40° Thoracic major: 21% vs 33%
Thoracolumbar/lumbar major: 79% vs 67%
0–1: 54% vs 79%
2: 29% vs 17%
3–5: 17% vs 4%
Brace + Schroth:
8-week outpatient program + home exercise + revisit every two months + 18 h/day of bracing.
Brace alone: 18 h/day
Kim et al [6, 35] RCT 15 10 5 13–23 16°-40° Not reported Not reported Schroth + Respiratory muscle exercise: 15 min of Resp + 40 min Schroth/session; 3 sessions/week; Schroth only: 1 h/session; 3 sessions/week
Schreiber et al [43, 44, 45] RCT 50 47 3 13–14 10°-45° 3C: n = 7
3CP: n = 15
4C: n = 5
4CP: n = 23
Mean:
1.76 vs 1.44
Schroth: 5 × 60 min of outpatient sessions delivered
first 2 weeks, then 60 min 1×/week + 30 to 45 min of daily home sessions for 6 months.
Standard care, consisting of observation or bracing if the SRS bracing criteria were met.
Kim et al [6, 35] RCT 24 24 0 14–17 10°-27° Not reported Not reported Schroth: 60 min, 3x/week for 12 weeks. Pilates exercise: 60 min, 3x/week for 12 weeks.
Kuru et al [37] RCT 45 39 6 11–14 20°-50° Not reported Mean:
1.5 vs 1.4 vs 1.0
Group 1: supervised Schroth + asymmetric position rotational breathing: 1.5 h/day, 60 min, 3x/week for 6 weeks + home program.
Group 2: home Schroth exercise + asymmetric position rotational breathing, 18 sessions for 6 weeks.
Observation only.
Monticone et al RCT 110 80 20 10–14 10°-25° Thoracic: n = 16
Lumbar: n = 27
Thoracolumbar: n = 41
S-shaped: 26
0: n = 50
1: n = 60
SEAS+ cognitive behavioral strategies + ergonomic education.
60 min of outpatient sessions delivered once a
week + 30 min of home sessions 2x/week.
Mean time on treatment = 42.8 months (SD 9.1).
General exercises for spinal mobilization.
60 min of outpatient sessions. Once a week + 30 min of home program sessions 2x/week at home.
  1. 3C: a thoracic curvature without pelvis imbalance. 3CP: a thoracic curvature with pelvis imbalanced. 4C: a thoracolumbar/lumbar curvature without pelvis imbalance. 4CP: a thoracolumbar/lumbar curvature with pelvis imbalanced