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Table 2 Results of the linear mixed model analysis for group, condition and interactions. The control group and forward walking are references for group and condition

From: Muscle activation patterns during backward walking in people with chronic ankle instability

   Pre-IC Post-IC
Estimate (95% CI) p-value Estimate (95% CI) p-value
PL Intercept 97.8 (71.0, 124.6)   89.0 (69.5, 108.5)  
Group −8.9 (−46.8, 29.0) 0.63 −3.2 (− 30.7, 24.4) 0.82
Condition 1.6 (−31.0, 34.4) 0.92 23.7 (−6.4, 53.7) 0.12
Group * Condition 14.9 (−31.3, 61.2) 0.52 15.6 (−26.0, 57.1) 0.45
TA Intercept 159.1 (132.9, 185.3)   113.6 (95.4, 131.8)  
Group −6.4 (−43.4, 30.7) 0.73 −20.5 (− 46.3, 5.2) 0.11
Condition − 111.3 (− 135.4, −87.2) < 0.001 − 62.8 (− 84.9, − 40.7) < 0.001
Group * Condition 17.2 (− 16.9, 51.3) 0.31 22.4 (−9.0, 53.8) 0.16
MGC Intercept 42.3 (28.8, 55.8)   60.2 (40.2, 80.2)  
Group −11.4 (−30.4, 7.7) 0.23 9.9 (−18.4, 38.2) 0.48
Condition 100.1 (63.7, 136.6) < 0.001 146.7 (105.8, 187.5) < 0.001
Group * Condition 36.2 (−16.2, 88.6) 0.17 4.3 (−53.5, 62.0) 0.88
GM Intercept 54.6 (42.0, 67.2)   74.5 (56.9, 92.0)  
Group −1.9 (− 19.8, 16.0) 0.83 −11.6 (−36.4, 13.1) 0.35
Condition −13.0 (− 22.9, − 3.2 0.01 −19.0 (− 33.6, −4.5) 0.01
Group * Condition −2.3 (− 16.2, 11.6) 0.73 7.3 (− 13.2, 27.9) 0.47
  1. * CAI chronic ankle instability, IC initial contact, PL peroneus longus, TA tibialis anterior, MGC medial gastrocnemius, GM gluteus medius