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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics according to tertiles of relative handgrip strengtha

From: Association between muscle strength and depressive symptoms among Chinese female college freshmen: a cross-sectional study

  Tertile 1 (low) (n = 286) Tertile 2 (n = 289) Tertile 3 (high) (n = 292) P for trendb
Mean (kg/kg) 0.45 0.54 0.64
 Age, years 18.6 (18.5, 18.7) 18.6 (18.5, 18.7) 18.7 (18.6, 18.8) 0.278
 BMI, Kg/m2 21.6 (21.3, 21.9) 20.0 (19.7, 20.2) 19.0 (18.8, 19.2) < 0.001
Smoking status, %
 Occasionally 5.6 (2.9, 8.3) 5.2 (2.6, 7.8) 3.4 (1.3, 5.5) 0.425
 Regularly 0.3 (−0.3, 1.0) 0.3 (−0.3, 1.0) 0.3 (−0.3, 1.0) 1.000
Drinking status, %
 Occasionally 55.9 (50.2, 61.7) 46.4 (40.6, 52.2) 48.6 (42.9, 54.4) 0.056
 Regularly 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 1.7 (0.2, 3.2) 1.4 (0.0, 2.7) 0.097
Tertile of physical activity, %
 Middle (range 28.43–58.50 MET·h·week-1) 32.2 (26.7, 37.6) 34.3 (28.8, 39.8) 33.6 (28.1, 39.0) 0.864
 High (range>58.50 MET·h·week-1) 36.0 (30.4, 41.6) 31.1 (25.8, 36.5) 33.2 (27.8, 38.7) 0.463
Sleep duration (6–8 h), % 88.0 (84.0, 92.0) 91.0 (88.0, 94.0) 90.0 (87.0, 94.0) 0.480
Sleep quality (good), % 75.2 (70.1, 80.2) 74.7 (69.7, 79.8) 77.1 (72.2, 81.9) 0.788
Race, %
 Han nationality 86.0 (82.0, 90.1) 87.2 (83.3, 91.1) 89.4 (85.8, 92.9) 0.461
 Tujia nationality 9.4 (6.0, 12.9) 7.3 (4.3, 10.3) 6.5 (3.7, 9.4) 0.393
 Miao nationality 2.8 (0.9, 4.7) 3.5 (1.3, 5.6) 1.7 (0.2, 3.2) 0.417
Father education level, %
 senior high school or below 93.4 (90.5, 96.3) 92.0 (88.9, 95.2) 92.8 (89.8, 95.8) 0.831
 college 6.3 (3.5, 9.1) 8.0 (4.8, 11.1) 6.9 (3.9, 9.8) 0.730
Mother education level, %
 Senior high school or below 95.5 (93.0, 97.9) 95.2 (92.7, 97.7) 96.6 (94.5, 98.7) 0.672
 College 4.6 (2.1, 7.0) 4.8 (2.4, 7.3) 3.4 (1.3, 5.5) 0.672
Parent’s marital status, %
 Widowed 3.9 (1.6, 6.1) 4.8 (2.4, 7.3) 2.4 (0.6, 4.2) 0.291
 Divorced 14.7 (10.6, 18.8) 13.5 (9.5, 17.5) 10.3 (6.8, 13.8) 0.259
Only one child, % 27.6 (22.4, 32.8) 26.6 (21.5, 31.8) 21.6 (16.8, 26.3) 0.199
SDS scores 40.2 (39.3, 41.1) 39.6 (38.7, 40.4) 38.6 (37.8, 39.5) 0.014
  1. PA physical activity, BMI body mass index, MET metabolic equivalent, SDS self-rating depression scale
  2. aContinuous variable without a normal distribution were log-transformed; Continuous variables are expressed as estimated geometric means (95%CI) and categorical variables are expressed as percentages (95%CI)
  3. bLinear trends were assessed using analysis of variance for continuous variables and categorical variables