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Table 1 Changes in characteristics of participants after 34 years1

From: Adult spinal deformity and its relationship with height loss: a 34-year longitudinal cohort study

Variables Baseline Final follow-up P value2
Age (years) 44.4 (31 to 55) 78.6 (65 to 89) < 0.0001
Height (cm) 157.4 (140 to 170) 153.6 (132 to 169) < 0.0001
Body weight (kg) 61.9 (44 to 85) 58.0 (38 to 87) < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.9 (20 to 31) 24.4 (18 to 30) 0.203
TK 35.4 (16 to 66) 34.3 (2 to 69) 0.515
LL 55.1 (32 to 79) 32.4 (−32 to 77) < 0.0001
PT 14.4 (0 to 39) 25.9 (4 to 54) < 0.0001
PI 56.0 (33 to 76) 54.4 (27 to 78) 0.015
PI-LL 0.9 (− 25 to 30) 21.1 (−15 to 84) < 0.0001
SS 41.4 (26 to 58) 28.7 (0 to 48) < 0.0001
SVA 4.3 (−40 to 67) 63.9 (−31 to 282) < 0.0001
  1. 1Data are presented as mean (range)
  2. 2P value < 0.05 was considered significant
  3. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, TK thoracic kyphosis, LL lumbar lordosis, PT pelvic tilt, PI pelvic incidence, SS sacral slope, SVA sagittal vertical axis