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Table 2 Main information of combined reconstruction in the included studies

From: Surgical intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis

Study Style of reconstruction Grafts used in EAR Graft fixation Tibial Insertion Femoral Insertion/Procedures
Lee, 2019 [21] ALLR A gracilis tendon allograft (fresh frozen) 7-mm biointerference screw (Matryx) The center between the Gerdy tubercle and fibular head Proximal and posterior to the lateral epicondyle
Helito, 2018 [17] ALLR Semitendinosus and gracilis tendons Metal anchors/the iliotibial band is sutured The center between the Gerdy tubercle and fibular head The posterior aspect, the lateral epicondyle
Imbert, 2017 [22] EAR Semitendinosus and gracilis tendons Interference screws A tibial margin position against the posterior aspect of the Gerdy tubercle. A femoral position 1 cm proximal and posterior to the lateral epicondyle
Ibrahim, 2017 [25] ALLR Semitendinosus and gracilis tendons BioIntrafix interference screw The center between the Gerdy tubercle and fibular head The lateral femoral epicondyle; proximal and anterior to the lateral collateral ligament
Sonnery-Cottet, 2017 [18] ALLR Autogenous hamstring tendons Bio-Interference screw 1 cm distal to the joint line: one just posterior to the Gerdy tubercle and the second one just anterior to the fibula head Back proximally to the femur
Zhang, 2016 [10] ALLR Semitendinosus and gracilis tendons The interference screw At the position beyond the joint line 0.8–1.0 cm with equal distance to the Gerdy tubercle and fibular head. At the prominence of the lateral femoral epicondyle, slightlyanterior to the origin of the lateral collateral ligament
Ferretti, 2016 [11] MacIntosh modified Coker-Arnold procedure Iliotibial band Sutured under tension with periosteal absorbable stitches The Gerdy tubercle A portion of the iliotibial band is detached proximally, reflected and passed under the lateral collateral ligament, and sutured under tension with periosteal stitches to Gerdy tubercle, while the tibia is kept in maximum external rotation
Trichine, 2014 [29] Extra-articular ilio-tibial band tenodesis Iliotibial band Interference screw/ n° 0 absorbable suture The Gerdy tubercle Isometric point of the lateral femoral condyle
Vadalà, 2013 [30] MacIntosh modified Coker-Arnold procedure Iliotibial band #0 Vycril suture The Gerdy tubercle A portion of the iliotibial band is detached proximally, reflected and passed under the lateral collateral ligament, and sutured under tension with periosteal stitches to Gerdy tubercle, while the tibia is kept in maximum external rotation
Monaco, 2007 [28] MacIntosh modified Coker-Arnold procedure Iliotibial band Periosteal stitches The Gerdy tubercle A portion of the iliotibial band is detached proximally, reflected and passed under the lateral collateral ligament, and sutured under tension with periosteal stitches to Gerdy tubercle, while the tibia is kept in maximum external rotation
Zaffagnini, 2006 [31] EAR Semitendinosus and gracilis tendons A single staple The Gerdy tubercle In the cortical bone of the femur at the end of the lateral condyle
Anderson, 2001 [23] A Losee extra-articular iliotibial band tenodesis Iliotibial band A whipstitch of 1–0 nonabsorbable material The Gerdy tubercle The lateral femoral condyle
  1. ALLR anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction; EAR extra-articular reconstruction