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Table 3 Dual-task cost

From: Interference of functional dual-tasks on gait in untrained people with Parkinson’s disease and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

OutcomesCondition to comparePDGHG
DT cost95% CIDT cost95% CI
VelocityVisual−7.49−.04 to .19− 6.09−.04 to .18
Verbal−14.97.07 to .22*−12.70.08 to .22*
Auditory−12.20.06 to .17*−12.19.09 to .20*
Motor−15.09.08 to .20*−10.34.06 to .18*
Stride lengthVisual−6.19.01 to .14*−4.95.01 to .13*
Verbal−10.48.07 to .18*−7.61.05 to .15*
Auditory−7.40.03 to .15*−6.39.03 to .14*
Motor−13.0.08 to .25*−6.74.01 to .18*
CadenceVisual−.32−5.12 to 5.82−3.37−1.22 to 9.33
Verbal−4.33−1.12 to 10.73−6.191.73 to 13.16*
Auditory−2.07−4.06 to 8.65−5.72.75 to 13.01*
Motor−2.28−3.04 to 8.10−3.68−.94 to 9.80
Double support timeVisual7.16−3.39 to −.89*5.96−2.77 to −.36*
Verbal12.63−5.25 to −2.32*7.30−3.33 to −.50*
Auditory7.70−3.28 to −1.32*8.56−3.19 to − 1.30*
Motor10.66−4.57 to −1.81*9.19−3.74 to −1.08*
Ankle rangeVisual−6.48.00 to 2.33*−4.16−.29 to 1.95
Verbal−8.68.51 to 2.61*−2.47−.51 to 1.50
Auditory.45−1.66 to 1.50−.93−1.34 to 1.71
Motor−11.24.59 to 3.46*−.99−1.18 to 1.57
Hip extensionVisual−5.70−2.07 to .983.01−1.19 to 1.75
Verbal−8.87−2.35 to .64.61−1.39 to 1.50
Auditory−10.01−2.40 to .47−1.47− 1.52 to 1.25
Motor−13.84−2.97 to .30− 2.37− 1.80 to 1.36
Hip flexionVisual−1.94−1.13 to 2.22−5.44.15 to 3.39*
Verbal−5.15.17 to 2.69*−5.66.62 to 3.05*
Auditory−2.23−.78 to 2.03−6.51.75 to 3.47*
Motor−4.37−.03 to 2.47− 6.71.97 to 3.39*
Weight-acceptance forceVisual−1.24−.19 to .39−2.55−.00 to .56
Verbal−1.20−.11 to .35−3.80.19 to .65*
Auditory−1.18−.13 to .38− 3.95.19 to .69*
Motor−.99−.17 to .39−2.42.01 to .56*
Midstance forceVisual1.37−.34 to .092.42−.40 to .02
Verbal4.16−.58 to −.11*6.09−.70 to −.24*
Auditory2.91−.49 to −.01*7.02−.78 to −.31*
Motor3.47−.54 to −.05*4.75−.63 to −.16*
Braking forceVisual−12.59−.24 to −.04*− 10.03−.25 to −.05*
Verbal−25.30−.42 to −.17*− 11.96−.30 to −.06*
Auditory− 14.82−.29 to −.05*− 16.67−.37 to −.14*
Motor− 17.59−.39 to −.04*− 11.97−.36 to −.02*
  1. Differences between single-task and dual-tasks conditions for each group from post-hoc analysis are shown with de 95% confidence interval (95% CI). * Indicates significant statistical differences between single-task and dual-task condition (p < .05). The dual-task cost was calculated with eq. 1. Negative percentages mean a decrease in the value measured during the dual-task compared with the single-task condition