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Table 2 pre-operative radiographic characteristics of the 22 patients that underwent leg lengthening by Ilizarov external fixation. AP-IPA: Anterior-Posterior Inter-Physeal Angle. L-IPA: Lateral Inter-Physeal Angle. LLD: leg length discrepancy calculated in absolute (cm) and relative (%) terms, compared to the contralateral side. MPTA: Medial Proximal Tibial angle. aLDFA: anterior Lateral Distal Femoral angle. HKA: Hip-Knee-Ankle angle. MAD: Mechanical Axis Deviation is defined as the distance from the midpoint of the tibial plateau to a line connecting the midpoints of the hip and ankle joint. In varus alignment the MAD was defined as a positive value in millimeters, while in cases of valgus position, the MAD was determined as a negative value

From: Deformity progression in congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia: a report of 44 cases

Radiographic parameter Mean ± SD (range)
AP-IPA 6.8 ± 4.6 (0–20)
L-IPA 4.8 ± 3.8 (0–11)
LLD (%) 12.9 ± 3.0 (9–22)
LLD (cm) 4.6 ± 0.9 (3–6.2)
LDTA 83.3 ± 5.2 (72–90)
MPTA 82.8 ± 2.6 (80–88)
aLDFA 79.7 ± 2.3 (74–84)
HKA 4.8 ± 4.2 (0–18)
MAD (mm) −5.2 ± 7.0 (3 – − 24.8)