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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline (n = 3266)

From: High self-efficacy – a predictor of reduced pain and higher levels of physical activity among patients with osteoarthritis: an observational study

Variable Total Low SE pain ≤62 High SE pain > 62 p-value Low SE OS ≤68 High SE OS > 68 p-value
Paina, mean (SD)
 baseline 48.48 (18.48) 52.96 (16.86) 43.46 (18.88) < 0.01c* 52.60 (17.46) 43.86 (18.48) < 0.01c*
 3 months 37.68 (19.68) 42.35 (19.11) 32.56 (19.00) < 0.01c* 42.17 (19.06) 32.92 (19.28) < 0.01c*
 1 year 39.97 (20.34) 44.24 (19.26) 35.23 (20.45) < 0.01c* 43.96 (19.73) 35.54 (20.19) < 0.01c*
Physical activityb, mean (SD)
 baseline 5.22 (2.05) 5.12 (2.15) 5.33 (1.92) < 0.01c* 4.99 (2.17) 5.47 (1.87) < 0.01c*
 3 months 5.45 (1.76) 5.40 (1.81) 5.50 (1.70) 0.11c 5.29 (1.84) 5.60 (1.65) < 0.01c*
 1 year 5.14 (1.91) 5.06 (1.99) 5.24 (1.81) < 0.01*c 4.99 (2.01) 5.31 (1.78) < 0.01c*
Age, yrs
 mean (SD) 64.73 (9.22) 66.33 (9.30) 64.01 (9.08) < 0.01*c 65.42 (9.57) 63.90 (8.74) < 0.01c*
 minmax 27–93 32–93 27–89 32–93 27–88
Gender,n(%)
 male 923 (28.26) 495 (28.98) 420 (27.50) 0.35d 465 (27.26) 442 (29.33) 0.19d
 female 2343 (71.74) 1213 (71.5) 1107 (72.50) 1241 (72.74) 1065 (70.67)
Marital status,n(%)
 cohabiting 2419 (74.29) 1235 (72.48) 1161 (76.23) 0.01d* 1208 (70.98) 1168 (77.66) < 0.01d*
 living alone 837 (25.71) 469 (27.52) 362 (23.77) 494 (29.02) 336 (22.34)
Born in Sweden,n(%)
 yes 3013 (92.37) 1569 (91.92) 1419 (92.99) 0.25d 1559 (91.44) 1410 (93.63) 0.02d*
 no 249 (7.63) 138 (8.08) 107 (7.01) 146 (8.56) 96 (6.37)
Education,n(%)
 compulsory school 1213 (37.37) 714 (42.02) 484 (31.86) < 0.01d* 710 (41.89) 478 (31.85) < 0.01d*
 upper secondary school 1118 (34.44) 601 (35.37) 514 (33.84) 594 (35.04) 512 (34.11)
 university 915 (28.19) 384 (22.60) 521 (34.30) 391 (23.07) 511 (34.04)
BMI, kg/m2,n(%)
 underweight < 18.5 64 (2.01) 34 (2.04) 27 (1.82) 0.04d* 33 (1.99) 27 (1.84) < 0.01d*
 normal weight 18.524.9 877 (27.59) 425 (25.56) 442 (29.76) 426 (25.72) 436 (29.66)
 overweight 2529.9 1338 (42.09) 706 (42.45) 618 (41.62) 678 (40.94) 636 (43.27)
 obese ≥30 900 (28.31) 498 (29.95) 398 (26.80) 519 (31.34) 371 (25.24)
Most affected joint,n(%)
 hip 894 (27.37) 498 (29.16) 388 (25.41) 0.02d* 492 (28.84) 388 (25.75) 0.05d
 knee 2372 (72.63) 1210 (70.84) 1139 (74.54) 1214 (71.16) 1119 (74.25)
Affected other hip/knee,n(%)
 no 1459 (45.13) 701 (41.55) 746 (49.18) < 0.01d* 727 (43.12) 713 (47.63) 0.01d*
 yes 1774 (54.87) 986 (58.45) 771 (50.82) 959 (56.88) 784 (52.37)
Walking difficulty,n(%)
 no 539 (16.70) 176 (10.44) 357 (23.58) < 0.01d* 178 (10.58) 352 (23.53) < 0.01d*
 yes 2689 (83.3) 1510 (88.1) 1157 (76.42) 1505 (89.42) 1144 (76.47)
  1. Demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline for the total cohort (n = 3266) and separately for the groups of participants with low vs high self-efficacy for pain management and low vs high self-efficacy for management of other symptoms
  2. SD standard deviation, SE pain self-efficacy for pain management, SE OS self-efficacy for management of other symptoms, VAS visual analogue scale
  3. aMeasured using a VAS from 0 to 100; bdays per week of being physically active for ≥30 min; ct-test; d chi-square test
  4. *p-value< 0.05