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Table 4 Odd ratios of variables in rheumatic patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis

From: Prevalence and risk factors for bone loss in Southern Chinese with rheumatic diseases

Variables Osteopenia Osteoporosis
OR (95% CIs) P OR (95% CIs) P
Former or current chronic GC therapy N = 163 N = 276
Agea 1.07 [1.03;1.11] 0.001 1.13 [1.08;1.18] < 0.001
Disease durationb 1.06 [1.00;1.12] 0.033 1.05 [1.00;1.11] 0.052
BMI, Kg/m2
  < 18.5 (underweight) 1.74 [0.44;12.6] 0.469 2.98 [0.83;20.7] 0.102
 18.5–23.9 (normal) Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 24–27.9 (overweight) 0.54 [0.26;1.11] 0.092 0.30 [0.15;0.61] 0.001
  ≥ 28(obese) 0.55 [0.18;1.93] 0.329 0.17 [0.05;0.65] 0.011
Gender, compared with male
 Female 3.08 [1.55;6.15] 0.001 3.52 [1.83;6.74] < 0.001
Menopause status
 Post-menopause Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Early menopause, age ≤ 45 0.96 [0.32;3.65] 0.943 1.09 [0.39;4.02] 0.877
Medical history
 Diabetes Mellitus 0.84 [0.34;2.28] 0.709 0.71 [0.31;1.88] 0.471
 Hypertension 1.31 [0.62;3.01] 0.492 1.17 [0.57;2.63] 0.675
 Dyslipidemia 0.29 [0.13;0.66] 0.003 0.45 [0.22;0.93] 0.031
 Hyperuricemia 0.58 [0.27;1.30] 0.178 0.42 [0.20;0.92] 0.032
Former or current smokers 0.42 [0.16;1.15] 0.089 0.44 [0.19;1.12] 0.083
Regular drinking 0.48 [0.13;1.97] 0.284 0.65 [0.22;2.40] 0.477
Hypovitaminosis D 2.49 [1.29;4.90] 0.007 3.95 [2.09;7.58] < 0.001
CRP elevation 1.15 [0.60;2.22] 0.673 1.60 [0.85;2.99] 0.143
ESR elevation 1.36 [0.68;2.67] 0.374 2.49 [1.27;4.80] 0.009
Non-GC therapy N = 176 N = 239
Agea 1.12 [1.09;1.16] < 0.001 1.16 [1.12;1.20] < 0.001
Disease durationb 1.02 [0.98;1.06] 0.311 1.02 [0.99;1.06] 0.128
BMI, Kg/m2
  < 18.5 (underweight) 0.86 [0.25;3.54] 0.826 2.04 [0.74;7.35] 0.178
 18.5–23.9 (normal) Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 24–27.9 (overweight) 0.70 [0.40;1.23] 0.217 0.29 [0.16;0.51] < 0.001
  ≥ 28(obese) 0.54 [0.26;1.14] 0.104 0.29 [0.14;0.60] 0.001
Gender, compared with male
 Female 1.02 [0.48;2.09] 0.949 9.34 [5.51;16.2] < 0.001
Menopause status
 Post-menopause Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Early menopause, age ≤ 45 1.70 [0.43;12.3] 0.485 1.09 [0.39;4.02] 0.877
Medical history
 Diabetes Mellitus 0.97 [0.50;1.93] 0.921 1.02 [0.55;1.99] 0.939
 Hypertension 1.58 [0.92;2.75] 0.098 1.17 [0.69;2.00] 0.566
 Dyslipidemia 0.87 [0.47;1.64] 0.651 0.60 [0.33;1.13] 0.114
 Hyperuricemia 0.66 [0.37;1.16] 0.146 0.54 [0.31;0.93] 0.027
Former or current smokers 0.33 [0.16;0.66] 0.002 0.35 [0.18;0.66] 0.001
Regular drinking 0.29 [0.13;0.61] 0.001 0.24 [0.12;0.51] < 0.001
Hypovitaminosis D 0.88 [0.51;1.50] 0.639 1.02 [0.60;1.69] 0.95
CRP elevation 0.77 [0.46;1.26] 0.292 0.78 [0.48;1.25] 0.294
ESR elevation 0.83 [0.49;1.40] 0.492 1.48 [0.87;2.48] 0.146
  1. acontinuous variable; bcontinuous variable and correlative with age