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Table 4 Overall quality of evidence table

From: Risk factors for non-specific neck pain in young adults. A systematic review

Univariate Multivariate GRADE factors
Potential risk factors identified Number of participants Number of studies + 0 + 0 Phase Study limitations Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Publication bias Moderate/ large effect size Dose effect Overall quality
Being female 895–954 3 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 x x x x NA +
Body mass index 895–954 3 0 3 0 NA 1 x x x x +
Physical activity 895–954 3 0 3 0 NA 1 x x x x +
Mental stress 371–430 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 x x x x NA +
Duration of computer use 791–850 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 x x x x x +
Not having computer screen at eye level 524 1 NA 1 0 0 1 x NA NA x NA +
Keyboard positioned too high 524 1 NA 1 0 0 1 x NA x NA x +
Being a 2nd year student 524 1 NA 1 0 0 1 x NA x NA x x +
Computer mouse height too low 524 1 NA 0 0 1 1 x NA x NA x x +
Using computer for entertainment ≥70% of time 524 1 NA 0 0 1 1 x NA x NA x NA +
  1. For uni- and multivariate analyses: + represents number of significant effects with a positive OR; 0 represents number of non-significant effects; − represents number of significant effects with a negative OR. Phase means phase of investigation. For GRADE factors: , no serious limitations; ✕, serious limitations (or not present for moderate/large effect size, dose effect) NA, unable to rate item based on available information. For overall quality of evidence: + very low; ++ low; +++ moderate; ++++ high. Only factors investigated in more than one study or which showed statistical significance in one study are included in the table. Number of participants vary because of inaccurate reporting of participants in one of the studies