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Table 3 Potential risk factors grouped into the international classification of function and disability (ICF)

From: Risk factors for non-specific neck pain in young adults. A systematic review

Study Body Functions and Structures Activities and Participation Environmental factors Personal factors
Dieck et al.
From Table 6a
• Shoulder elevationc
• Hip elevationc
• Deviation of the spinec
• Scoliosis: X2 = 0.001 (p = 0.98)
• Kyphosis (normal): X2 = 6.38 (p = 0.09)
• Lordosis (normal): X2 = 1.05 (p = 0.79)
• Pelvic tilt (normal):X2 = 0.19 (p = 0.91)
   
Grimby Ekman et al. [36]
From Table 6a
• Asthma: crude OR = 2.0 (p = 0.046)b
• Asthma: adj. OR = 2.0 (0.996–3.91)
• Perceived stress: adj. OR 1.7 (1.13–2.63)b
• Overweight: OR = 0.80 (p = 0.522)
• Computer use pattern:
- One 4 h period without a break: adj. OR = 1.7 (0.941–2.94)
- At least two 4 h periods without a break adj. OR = 1.8 (1.16–2.89)b
• Physical activity: OR = 0.99 (p = 0.599)
• Breakfast regularly: OR = 0.81 (p = 0.423)
• Work/study time: OR 1.0 (p = 0.889)
• High work/study demands
- Not affecting home life: adj. OR = 1.4 (0.913–2.20)
- Affecting home life: adj. OR = 1.1 (0.596–2.12)
• High home life demands: adj. OR = 2.2 (0.912–5.07)
• Good relationships with superiors: OR = 0.67 (p = 0.280)
• Good relationships with colleagues: adj. OR = 0.72 (0.354–1.48)
  • Being female: adj. OR 3.1 (2.00–4.82)b
• Snuff use: OR = not reported
• Smoking: OR = 1.2 (p = 0.685)
Gustafsson et al. [35]
From table 3a
  One year follow-up:
- High stable, Short message service (SMS) (> 11 per day): adj. OR = 1.0 (0.69–1.58)
- Stable SMS: OR = 1
Five year follow up:
- High stable SMS: adj. OR = 1.3 (0.76–2.19)
- Stable SMS: OR = 1
  
Kanchanomai et al. [34]
From Table 2 and 3a
• Neck extensor and flexor endurancec
• Neck range of motion (ROM), extension, flexion, rotation and lateral rotation c
• Pectoralis major muscle lengthc
• Upper limb nerve tension test c
• ROM elbow extension c
• Chronic diseasesc
• Mental health c
• Body mass indexc
• Elbows positioned at 90° angle while using computer
- Yes: adj. OR = 1.00
- No: adj. OR = 1.52 (0.99–2.31)
• Percent duration of mouse use while working at desk
- < 70: adj. OR = 1.00
- ≥ 70: adj. OR = 0.66 (0.42–1.04)
• Physical activityc
• Average amount of daily computer usec
• Years of computer usec
• Year of study
- 1st year: adj. OR = 1.00
- 2nd year: adj. OR = 1.90 (1.08–3.35)b
- 3rd year: adj. OR = 0.96 (0.42–2.15)
- 5th year: adj. OR = 7.09 (0.57–87.70)
• Percent time of computer use for entertainment
- < 70: adj. OR = 1.00
- ≥ 70: adj. OR = 0.44 (0.21–0.95)b
• Type of computerc
• Support of head, upper back, low back and arms while using computer
• Computer screen positioned at eye level
- Yes: adj. OR = 1.00
- No: adj. OR = 1.64 (1.13–2.36) b
• Mouse height
- Suitable: adj. OR = 1.00
- Too high: adj. 1.30 (0.82–2.10)
- Too low: adj. OR = 0.52 (0.28–0.99)b
• Keyboard height
- Suitable: adj. OR = 1.00
- Too low: adj. OR = 0.46 (0.17–1.20)
- Too high: adj. OR = 2.18 (1.21–3.91)b
• Genderc
• Agec
• Field of studyc
Siivola et al. [39]
From table 3a
• Physical condition
- Good or fairly good: RR = 1
- Moderate: RR = 1.3 (0.8–2.2)
- Fairly poor or poor: RR = 0.9 (0.4–2.5)
• Depressive mood
- As continuous variable: RR = 1.1 (0.9–1.2)
Symptoms decreased: RR = 1 (0.6–1.6)
- Symptoms unchanged: RR = 1
- Symptoms increased: RR = 1.3 (0.8–2.1)
• Psychosomatic symptoms score (crude):
- As continuous variable: RR = 1 (1.0–1.1)*
- Symptoms decreased: RR = 0.6 (0.3–1.0)
- Symptoms unchanged:
RR = 1
- Symptoms increased: RR = 1.5 (0.9–2.6)
• BMI
- Quartile 1: RR = 1
- Quartile 2: RR = 1 (0.5–1.9)
- Quartile 3: RR = 1 (0.4–2.1)
- Quartile 4: RR = 1 (0.5–1.9)
• Height
- Quartile 1: RR = 1
- Quartile 2: RR = 1.5 (0.7–3.1)
- Quartile 3: RR = 1.6 (0.8–3.3)
• Quartile 4: RR = 0.9 (0.4–2.1)
• Panting and sweating in physical exercise (intensity of physical activity)
- A lot: RR = 1
- Somewhat: RR = 1.5 (0.7–3.4)
- A little/not at all/no exercise: RR = 1.3 (0.7–2.5)
• School achievement (grade points)
- Quartile 1:RR = 1
- Quartile 2:RR = 1.7 (0.7–4.1)
- Quartile 3: RR = 1 (0.4–2.3)
- Quartile 4: RR = 1 (0.4–2.5)
• Time spent on homework
• School mark for physical education: RR = 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
• Physical activity leisure time
- Very active: RR = 1
- Fairly active: RR = 1.1 (0.6–2.2)
- Fairly passive: RR = 1.4 (0.6–2.9)
- Very passive: RR = 1.3 (0.6–2.8)
• Type of leisure activity
- Sport activities involving dynamic loading of upper extremities: RR = 0.8 (0.4–1.5)
- Other sports: RR = 1.2 (0.3–4.7)
- Hobbies that statically load the upper extremities: RR = 1.2 (0.3–4.7)
- Other hobbies: RR = 1 (0.4–2.4)
  • Gender
- Male: 1
- Female: RR = 1.3 (0.8–2.2)
• Seeking health care for NSP
- Quartile 1: RR = 1
- Quartile 2: RR = 1.4 (0.7–2.9)
- Quartile 3: RR = 1 (0.5–2.0)
- Quartile 4:RR = 1.1 (0.6–2.3)
Timpka et al. [38]
From table 2a
• Isometric muscle strength
- Low: adj. RR = 0.93 (0.83–1.03)
- High: adj. RR = 1.00 (0.90–1.10)
   
  1. a Results from tables in original studies
  2. b Significant results
  3. c Non-significant results, risk estimates not presented in original article
  4. OR odds ratio, adj. OR adjusted odds ratio, RR relative risk, adj. RR adjusted relative risk, p p-value, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, SMS short message service