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Table 1 Study characteristics in alphabetical order

From: Risk factors for non-specific neck pain in young adults. A systematic review

Authors Population source and eligible (n) Participants at baseline (n) Participants at follow-up, n (% of included) Age at baseline (mean or range) Years of follow-up Definition of outcome
Dieck et al. (1985) [37] Female college students from an eastern U.S. College graduating in 1957–1959.
Population: 1948
1713 903 (52.7%) 18–19 years 25 First episode of neck pain.
Neck pain lasting for at least a week.
Grimby-Ekmann et al. (2009) [36] Swedish medical and IT students from six colleges in five cities of Sweden.
Invited: 1728
1204 respondents at baseline. Not reported how many included in the risk analysis at baseline. 267 (22.2%) - 326 (27%), variations because of incomplete data 18–25 years 1 and 2 years A combination of first and recurrent episodes of neck pain.
Pain at present, period of pain and the number of years with pain
Gustafsson et al. (2017) [35] Swedish young adults randomly selected from the registry of the general population kept by the Swedish Tax Agency.
Assessed for eligible: 20000
4431 eligible for risk analysis 1 year: 1542 (34.8%) crude analysis 1522 (34.3%) multiple analysis
5 year: 870 (19.6%) crude analysis 868 (19.6%) multiple analysis
20–24 years Mean: 22 years 1 and 5 years A combination of first and recurrent episodes of neck pain.
Currently experienced pain in the upper part of the back/neck
Kanchanomai et al. (2011) [34] Undergraduate students at Thammasat University
Assessed for eligibility: 3545 Eligible: 2511
684 agreed to participate in the study 524 (77%) 18–25 years Mean: 19.4 years 1 year, every 3rd month. A combination of first and recurrent episodes of neck pain.
Neck pain lasting > 24 h during the past 3 months. Neck pain for 2 or more follow-ups in a row was categorized as persistent neck pain.
Siivola et al. (2004) [39] Finnish high school students.
Random sample: 826
189 eligible for risk analysis 104 (55%) without neck pain at baseline 15–18 years 7 years A combination of first and recurrent episodes of neck pain.
Weekly neck and shoulder pain during the last 6 months.
Timpka et al. (2013) [38] Swedish men that had performed mandatory conscription and been included in the Swedish Living Conditions Surveys.
Eligible: 7123 accepted participation in survey
5489 5489 17–19 years Mean: 18.2 years 17.2 years A combination of first and recurrent episodes of neck pain.
Currently neck or shoulder pain.
  1. Some studies [35, 36, 39] included both participants with and without pain at baseline, but they did separate risk analysis for those without pain at baseline