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Table 3 Baseline- (T0), follow up- (T1) and change- (Δ T0-T1) scores, and effect sizes for pain, physical functioning and forefoot plantar pressure in the subgroup of patients with combined forefoot pain and high plantar pressure at baseline (n = 23)

From: Outcomes and potential mechanism of a protocol to optimize foot orthoses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Analysed patientsNT0T1Δ T0-T1ESP-value
pain
  FFI pain (range 0–100), primary outcome2134.18 (15.91)25.23 (19.29)−8.95 (14.44)0.620.010
  NRS foot pain during walking (range 0–10)214.10 (2.53)2.81 (2.16)−1.29 (1.95)0.660.007
  NRS foot pain during standing (range 0–10)203.15 (2.52)2.55 (1.99)−0.60 (1.70)0.350.131
physical functioning
  FFI disability (range 0–100), primary outcome2125.35 (13.88)17.13 (13.99)−8.22 (10.38)0.790.002
  10-m walking time, seconds228.27 (1.08)8.00 (1.02)−0.27 (0.77)0.350.110
observed forefoot plantar pressure
  PP central forefoot (kPa)23288.23 (62.90)246.85 (66.14)−41.37 (65.07)0.640.006
  PTI central forefoot (kPa s)2376.03 (15.01)63.77 (15.14)−12.26 (17.83)0.690.003
Analysed feetN  Δ T0-T1 P-value
estimated forefoot plantar pressure
  PP central forefoot (kPa)39  −28.43 (10.53)* 0.012
  PTI central forefoot (kPa s)39  −12.52 (2.69)* < 0.001
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. * Values are presented as estimated mean difference and standard error. PP Peak Pressure, PTI Pressure Time Integral, FFI foot function index, NRS numeric rating scale, ES effect size