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Table 1 Summary of most widely used osteoarthritis models and direct cartilage injury models with respect to their type/mode of action and most commonly employed species [40, 44, 79]

From: Understanding cartilage protection in OA and injury: a spectrum of possibilities

CARTILAGE DEGENERATION Osteoarthritis models Commonly used species
Spontaneous Aging Naturally occurring Guinea Pig, Mouse, Dog
Genetic Genetically modified Mouse
Induced Chemical Collagenase Mouse, Rat, Rabbit
Sodium Monoiodoacetate (MIA)
Diet-induced Obesity/Metabolic syndrome Mouse, Rat
Post-traumatic (non-invasive) Cyclic tibial compression Mouse, Rabbit, Dog
Intra-articular tibial fracture
Post-traumatic (invasive/surgical) Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) Rat, Rabbit, Dog
Destabilization medial meniscus (DMM) Mouse, Rat
Meniscectomy Mouse, Rat, Rabbit, Dog, Goat
CARTILAGE REGENERATION Cartilage Injury models Commonly used species
Induced Longitudinal full-thickness cartilage defect [40] Osteochondral/Chondral defect - trochlear groove Mouse, Rabbit
Full-thickness cartilage defect (FTCD) [44] Focal osteochondral defect - trochlear groove Mouse, Rat, Rabbit, Dog, Horse