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Table 3 Exercise interventions and comparators across included studies

From: Exercise for people with a fragility fracture of the pelvis or lower limb: a systematic review of interventions evaluated in clinical trials and reporting quality

Intervention Control Study
Resistance exercise Resistance exercise only
Resistance exercise Aerobic exercise Inactive control Mangione et al. 2005 [13] a
Resistance exercise TENS Mangione et al. 2010 [14]
Resistance exercise Resistance exercise and supplementary nutrition Supplementary nutrition Advice Miller et al. 2006 [15]
Resistance exercise Inactive control Sherrington et al. 1997 [16]
Resistance and functional movement exercises
Resistance and functional movement exercises Inactive control Sylliaas et al. 2012 [17]
Resistance and functional movement exercises Inactive control Sylliaas et al. 2011 [18]
Resistance, balance, and flexibility exercise, and advice
Resistance, balance, and flexibility exercise, and advice Non-weight bearing flexibility exercise and advice Moseley et al. 2015 [12]
Resistance, functional movement, and balance exercise
Resistance, functional movement, and balance exercise Functional movement and balance exercise Mitchell et al. 2001 [19]
Resistance, functional movement, and balance exercise Physical activity and cognitive task practice Hauer 2002 [20]
Resistance and aerobic exercise
Resistance and aerobic exercise Resistance and aerobic exercise, \and behaviour change strategies Behaviour change strategies Inactive control Resnick et al 2007 [21]
Resistance, flexibility, balance, and aerobic exercise
Resistance, flexibility, balance, and aerobic exercise Flexibility exercise Binder et al. 2004 [22]
Resistance, aerobic, and balance exercise
Resistance, aerobic, and balance exercise Inactive control Peterson et al. 2004 [23]
Resistance and functional movement exercise, and behaviour change strategies
Resistance and functional movement exercise, and behaviour change strategies Dietary advice Latham et al. 2016 [24]
Resistance and balance exercise, and complex optional intervention components
Resistance and balance exercise, and complex optional intervention components Usual care including physiotherapy Singh et al. 2012 [25]
Weight bearing exercise Weight bearing resistance and functional movement exercise
Weight bearing resistance and functional movement exercise Non-weight bearing flexibility and functional movement exercise Sherrington et al. 2003 [26]
Higher dose weight bearing resistance and functional movement exercise Lower dose limited weight bearing resistance and functional movement exercise Moseley et al. 2009 [27]
Weight bearing resistance exercise only
Weight bearing resistance exercise Non-weight bearing flexibility exercise Inactive control Sherrington et al. 2004 [28]
Weight bearing resistance and balance exercise, and advice
Weight bearing resistance and balance exercise, and advice Inactive control Elinge et al. 2003 [29]
Weight bearing balance and functional movement exercise
Weight bearing balance and functional movement exercise Limited weight bearing resistance, flexibility, and functional movement exercise Monticone et al. 2018 [30]
Treadmill training Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training and usual physical therapy Usual physical therapy Ohoka et al. 2015 [31]
Adaptability treadmill training and multimodal exerciseb Conventional treadmill training and multimodal exercise Multimodal exercise van Ooijen et al. 2016 [32]
Dose of sessions with health professional Multi-disciplinary care:
Higher dose multi-disciplinary care Lower dose multi-disciplinary care Ryan et al. 2006 [33]
Higher dose multi-disciplinary care Lower dose multi-disciplinary care Crotty et al. 2019 [34]
Physiotherapy:
Higher dose physiotherapy Lower dose physiotherapy Kimmel et al. 2016 [35]
Higher dose physiotherapy and high dose cholecalciferol Higher dose physiotherapy and low dose cholecalciferol Lower dose physiotherapy and high dose cholecalciferol Lower dose physiotherapy and low dose cholecalciferol Bischoff-Ferrari et al. 2010 [36]
Higher dose physiotherapy Lower dose physiotherapy Tsauo et al. 2005 [37]
Occupational therapy/functional training
Occupational therapy/functional training and usual care including physiotherapy Usual care including physiotherapy Hagsten et al. 2004 [38]
Occupational therapy/functional training and multimodal exercise Multimodal exercise Martín-Martín et al. 2014 [39]
Occupational therapy/functional training and higher dose multimodal exercise Lower dose multimodal exercise Tinetti et al. 1999 [40]
Behaviour change strategies and exercise:
Behaviour change strategies, unspecified exercise, and usual care Usual care Suwanpasu et al. 2014 [41]
Behaviour change strategies, higher dose functional movement exercise, and functional training Lower dose functional movement exercise and functional training Zidén et al. 2008 [42]
Behaviour change strategies, resistance, and aerobic exercise Inactive control Orwig et al. 2011 [43]
Behaviour change strategies, multimodal exercise, and flexibility exercise Flexibility exercise Salpakoski et al. 2014 [44]
Behaviour change strategies, functional movement exercise, and usual care Usual care Williams et al. 2017 [45]
Timing of weight bearing Early weight bearing and flexibility exercise Delayed weight bearing and flexibility exercise Ali 2010 [46]
Early weight bearing and usual physiotherapy Delayed weight bearing and usual physiotherapy Oldmeadow et al. 2006 [47]
Aerobic exercise Aerobic exercise only
Aerobic exercise Resistance exercise Inactive control Mangione et al. 2005 [13] a
Aerobic and multimodal exercise
Aerobic and multimodal exercise Multimodal exercise Mendelsohn et al. 2008 [48]
  1. Definitions: Inactive control: if the control group were not receiving any input from a healthcare clinician, or the experimental intervention commences after input from a healthcare clinician has finished for both the experimental intervention group and control group; Physiotherapy in title of control groups: if what exercise was completed as part of physiotherapy is not described; Usual care: if receiving input from healthcare clinicians but physiotherapy is not explicitly mentioned; Functional training: umbrella term to include activities of daily living practice
  2. aStudy appears in 2 categories: ‘Resistance exercise’ and ‘Aerobic exercise’
  3. bMultimodal exercise is > 3 different types of exercise e.g. flexibility, resistance, balance, and mobility exercise
  4. Exercises only completed in the warm-up and warm-down of exercise interventions were not included in the intervention description e.g. if flexibility exercises were only completed in the warm-up, flexibility exercise is not included in the intervention title