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Table 8 Risk Factors for the onset LBP

From: Prevalence and incidence of low back pain among runners: a systematic review

Author Risk Factors For LBP P -Value Odds Ratio
Clement DB, 1981 [69] - Leg-length discrepancy
- Reduced hamstrings flexibility
- Reduced back flexibility
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/
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Ellapen TJ, 2013 [70] - Hip flexion angles (female) -(Thomas Test + goniometer) p < 0.01 †3.0488
Malliaropoulos N, 2015 [64] - > than 6 years of experience in running P = 0.012 †5.4857
Woolf SK, 2002 [63] - Not equal wear of heels1
- BMI ≥ 241
- Not performing Weekly aerobics activity1
- Not Play in contact sports regularly1 (i.e. football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, boxing, rugby
- Not using orthotics + not equal wear of heels1
- Outside pattern of weara,1
- Running without Inside pattern of wear2
- Higher Physical height;
- Flexibility exercises routine for a longer time before working out2
- Not doing Traditional aerobics activity2
p = 0.034
p < 0.01
p < 0.05
p < 0.04
p = 0.011
p = 0.013
p ≤ 0.02
p ≤ 0.02
p ≤ 0.05
p < 0.05
‡1.263 (female ^BMI)
‡1.122 (male ^BMI)
  1. * higher credits as a sum of sex and age of the runner, difficulty level of previous races – positive height difference, the vertical climb index, and the distance in km – and performance.1 Previous LBP; a Subgroup of runners without insert; 2 Current LBP; †value calculated by authors using data from the full-text;‡ value reported directly from the full-text