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Table 5 Cross Sectional Critical Appraisal

From: Prevalence and incidence of low back pain among runners: a systematic review

  Chang WL. 2012 [67] Malliaropoulos N. 2015 [64] Marti B. 1988 [68] Woolf S. 2002 [63] Teixeira RN. 2016 [65] Besomi M., 2019 [66]
Were the criteria for inclusion in the sample clearly defined? Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Were the study subjects and the setting described in detail? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the exposure measured in a valid and reliable way? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were objective, standard criteria used for measurement of the condition? No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were confounding factors identified? Unclear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were strategies to deal with confounding factors stated? Unclear Yes Yes Unclear Yes Yes
Were the outcomes measured in a valid and reliable way? Unclear Yes Yes Unclear Yes Yes
Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes