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Table 4 Cohort Critical appraisal

From: Prevalence and incidence of low back pain among runners: a systematic review

  Dallinga J. 2019 [80] Bach DK.
1985 [72]
Buist I. 2008 [73] Lysholm J. 1987 [74] Tauton JE. 2003 [75] Van der Worp MP. 2016 [77] Messier SP. 2018 [79] Kluitenberg B. 2015 [76] Von Rosen P. 2017 [78] Walter SD. 1989 [81]
Were the two groups similar and recruited from the same population? Yes Yes Not applicable Yes Not applicable Not applicable Yes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Were the exposures measured similarly to assign people to both exposed and unexposed groups? Yes Yes Not applicable Yes Not applicable Not applicable Yes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Was the exposure measured in a valid and reliable way? Yes Yes Yes Yes Unclear Unclear Yes Unclear Unclear Unclear
Were confounding factors identified? Yes Unclear Yes Unclear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were strategies to deal with confounding factors stated? Unclear Unclear Yes Unclear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were the groups/participants free of the outcome at the start of the study (or at the moment of exposure)? Unclear Yes Unclear Yes Unclear Unclear Yes Yes Unclear Unclear
Were the outcomes measured in a valid and reliable way? Yes Yes Yes Unclear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the follow up time reported and sufficient to be long enough for outcomes to occur? Yes Not applicable Unclear Yes Yes Yes Yes Unclear Yes Yes
Was follow up complete, and if not, were the reasons to loss to follow up described and explored? Yes Not applicable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Were strategies to address incomplete follow up utilized? Yes Not applicable Yes Not applicable Unclear No Yes Yes Not applicable Yes
Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes