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Table 3 Case Control Critical Appraisal

From: Prevalence and incidence of low back pain among runners: a systematic review

  Clement DB. 1981 [69] Ellapen TJ. 2013 [70] Rasmussen CH. 2013 [71]
Were the groups comparable other than the presence of disease in cases or the absence of disease in controls? Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Were cases and controls matched appropriately? Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Were the same criteria used for identification of cases and controls? Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Was exposure measured in a standard, valid and reliable way? Unclear Yes Yes
Was exposure measured in the same way for cases and controls? Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Were confounding factors identified? Yes Yes Yes
Were strategies to deal with confounding factors stated? Yes Yes Yes
Were outcomes assessed in a standard, valid and reliable way for cases and controls? Yes Yes Yes
Was the exposure period of interest long enough to be meaningful? Yes Yes Yes
Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Unclear Yes Yes