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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Is intrinsic lumbar spine shape associated with lumbar disc degeneration? An exploratory study

Healthy Participants Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
• ≥ 30 years
• No low back pain
• No recurrent history of low back pain
• No episodes of LBP lasting greater
• than 3 months duration
• Spinal surgery
• Malignancy
• Spondylolisthesis
• Peripheral neuropathy with loss of sensation
• Systemic or spinal infection
• Neurological disease or balance disorder
• Disorders affecting pain perception
• Significant cardiovascular or metabolic disease
• Severe musculoskeletal deformity (scoliosis, osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, fracture)
• Spinal surgery or major surgery within three months prior to testing
• MRI contraindicated
Patients • ≥ 30 years
• Evidence of LDD without neural compression on MRI
• Recurrent low back pain (central/ unilateral) of greater than 3 months duration
• MRI as part of routine NHS care