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Table 1 Definitions of postoperative pulmonary complications

From: Accumulative occlusion time correlates with postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing pelvic and sacrum tumor resection assisted by abdominal aortic balloon occlusion: a retrospective cohort study

Suspected pulmonary infectionGeneral signs of infection, at least one of the following criteria: patient received antibiotics, core body temperature > 38 °C, leukocytosis > 12,000 cells per μL; and signs of an infection of pulmonary origin, at least one of the following criteria: new or changed sputum, or new or changed lung opacity on chest X-ray when clinically indicated.
AtelectasisLung opacification with shift of the mediastinum, hilum, or hemidiaphragm towards the affected area and compensatory overinflation of the adjacent non-atelectatic lung.
Pulmonary edemaDefined as diffuse alveolar interstitial infiltrates with dyspnea and rales related to left ventricular failure, confirmed by one of the following: echocardiography, pulmonary catheter, or clinical improvement with specific treatment.
Pleural effusionChest X-ray demonstrating blunting of the costophrenic angle, loss of the sharp silhouette of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm in upright position, evidence of displacement of adjacent anatomical structures, or (in supine position) a hazy opacity in one hemithorax with preserved vascular shadows.
Respiratory failure 
MildPaO2 < 60 mmHg, 8 kPa, or SpO2 < 90% in room air but responding to mask or nasal supplementary oxygen (excluding hypoventilation).
IntermediatePaO2 < 60 mmHg, 8 kPa, or SpO2 < 90% and needing invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding hypoventilation)
SeverePaO2-to-FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg or 40 kPa regardless of level of PEEP, needing invasive mechanical ventilation (acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome).
  1. Abbreviation: PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, SpO2 peripheral blood oxygen saturation, FiO2 fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air; PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure