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Table 2 Case demographic and disease characteristics

From: Incidence and risk factors of spinal epidural hemorrhage after spine surgery: a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a national database

CharacteristicsNo SEHSEHTotal
Number of Cases17,34820117,549
Age (mean (SD) in year)56.72 (15.12)59.08 (13.71)56.75 (15.11)
Sex
 Male8730908820
 Female86181118729
Total Medical Paymenta (mean (SD) in USD)2438 (2071)3028 (2099)2445 (2072)
Duration of Hospital Stay (mean (SD) in days)13.41 (9.49)19.35 (11.66)13.48 (9.54)
Insurance Types
 National Health Insurance16,27818516,463
 Medical Aid & Veterans1070161086
Spine Surgery Types (%)
 Lumbar12,381 (98.64)170(1.35)12,551 (100)
 Not Lumbar4967 (99.38)31 (0.62)4998 (100)
Spine Surgery Approach (%)
 Anterior3918 (98.47)61 (1.53)3979 (100)
 Not Anterior13,430 (98.97)140 (1.03)13,570 (100)
Infections
 No15,98318016,163
 Yes1365211386
Diabetes
 No15,62917715,806
 Yes1719241743
Hypertension
 No11,97212112,093
 Yes5376805456
Use of NSAIDs
 No8032805
 Yes16,54519916,744
Invasive Proceduresb (%)
 No13,056 (98.89)146 (1.11)13,202 (100)
 Yes4292 (98.73)55 (1.27)4347 (100)
Bleeding Factorsc
 No14,22314014,363
 Yes3125613186
Trauma
 No16,49918816,687
 Yes84913862
Anticoagulant Use
 No15,09017815,268
 Yes2258232281
Surgery Hours
 0 < HR ≤ 217,14918717,336
 Over 2 h19914213
Blood Loss
 No Loss14,52613514,661
 0 < Loss ≤0.5 L1871411912
 Over 0.5 L95125976
Type of Hospitalsd (%)
 General Hospitals6371 (99.04)62 (0.96)6433 (100)
 Small Hospitals10,977 (98.93)139 (1.07)11,116 (100)
Number of Beds in Hospitals (%)
 Beds ≤20010,611 (98.99)108 (1.01)10,719 (100)
 More than 200 Beds6737 (98.64)93 (1.36)6830 (100)
Location of Hospitals (%)
 Metropolitan area (Seoul)5066 (99.37)32 (0.63)5098 (100)
 Other Metropolitan areas8853 (99.05)86 (0.95)8939 (100)
 Rural Area3421 (97.63)83 (2.37)3504 (100)
Total (cases)
  1. SEH spinal epidural hemorrhage and hematoma, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. aTotal medical payments: The sum of the payments that patients pay for all medical services when they leave from a hospital
  3. bInvasive procedures: lumbar puncture, myelography, and epidural anesthesia
  4. cBleeding factors: coagulation factor deficiency and thrombocytopenia
  5. dType of Hospitals: The hospitals are classified into four categories in Korea, based on their function and size. From largest to smallest, they are tertiary general hospital, general hospital, hospital, and clinic. Small hospitals include hospital and clinic. General hospitals includes tertiary general and general hospitals