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Table 1 Incidence rate and risk factors in previous literature

From: Incidence and risk factors of spinal epidural hemorrhage after spine surgery: a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a national database

AuthorsYearIncidence (cases/total population)Risk factorsP-value
Kou et al. [27]2002NAMultilevel procedure0.037
Anno et al. [28]20190.42% (14/3371)Presence of preoperative coagulopathy< 0.001
  Cervical: 0.47% (4/856)AgeNA
  Thoracic: 0.60% (2/332)Multilevel procedureNA
  Lumbar: 0.37% (8/2183)Scar tissue due to previous spinal surgeryNA
   HeparinizationNA
   Vessel damageNA
Kebaish et al. [29]20040.2%NANA
Yamada et al. [30]20150.39% (32/8250)≥ 50 mmHg increase in blood pressure after extubation0.03
   Obesity0.018
Agnelli et al. [31]19990% (0/15)  
Gerlach et al. [32]20040.7% (13/1954)ThrombocytopeniaNA
   Anticoagulant useNA
   Antiplatelet agent useNA
   Alcohol consumptionNA
   CoagulopathyNA
   MalignancyNA
Uribe et al. [33]20030.22% (9/4018)ThrombocytopeniaNA
   Coagulation factor deficiencyNA
   Medications that predispose to bleedingNA
   Previous surgery with attendant scarring at the site of epidural hematomaNA
   Diabetes 
Kim et al. [34]201923.6% (94/304; diagnosed by MRI)Anticoagulant use< 0.001
  1.97% (6/304; hematoma evacuation surgery)Female sex0.012
   Old age (>  70 years)0.025
   Use of intraoperative water infusion pump0.003
   Type of operation0.01
Ohba et al. [35]20170.468% (6/1282)HypertensionNA
   Age > 60 yearsNA
   Anticoagulant useNA
   Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)NA
   Previous spine surgeryNA
   Multilevel procedureNA
   Blood loss > 1 LNA
   InfectionsNA
Goldstein et al. [36]20131.5% (8/529)Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)0.24
   Increase in Charlson Comorbidity Index0.003
Yi et al. [37]20060.28% (9/3270)Coagulopathy 
   Anticoagulant use 
   Cancer 
Thiele et al. [38]2008NAPredisposed bleedingNA
   Prolonged surgical timeNA
   Old ageNA
   TraumaNA
Knusel et al. [39]20190.27% (206/75,878)Old ageNA
   Obesity (BMI > 35)NA
   TransfusionNA
   Multilevel procedureNA
   Invasive procedureNA
   Microscope useNA
  1. NA not available