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Table 1 Univariate analysis for demographic and preoperative data between the favorable and unfavorable outcome groups in 1-year postoperative according to the PRO score and MCID method

From: Definitions of unfavorable surgical outcomes and their risk factors based on disability score after spine surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis

CharacteristicsPRO score method (patients) MCID method (patients)
Favorable Outcome (84)Unfavorable Outcome (147)P valueFavorable Outcome (128)Unfavorable Outcome (103)P value
Age (years)65.2 ± 9.167.9 ± 9.00.02666.63 ± 9.1867.32 ± 9.110.566
BMI (kg/m2)25.84 ± 4.1625.36 ± 3.380.34325.73 ± 4.0325.30 ± 3.200.375
Sex (Male: Female)38:4633:114<  0.00138:9033:700.404
Type of surgery
 Fusion48880.39579570.199
 Decompression36594946
Level of Surgery
 1721210.216107860.470
 212232015
 30312
Educational level
 Elementary school9450.00527270.190
 Middle school22383822
 High school27333525
 University25292826
 Unknown1203
Comorbidity
 Hypertension47990.09182640.785
 Diabetes25390.64837270.661
 Ischemic heart disease280.334550.755
 Kidney160.427431.000
 Stroke361.016450.517
 Liver disease011.000010.446
Smoking history
 Current smoker790.322970.885
 Ex-smoker14161614
 No smoking6311910280
 Unknown0312
Preoperative VAS for back pain5.48 ± 2.826.39 ± 2.490.0126.52 ± 2.635.49 ± 2.570.003
Preoperative VAS for leg pain6.79 ± 2.407.19 ± 2.270.1967.34 ± 2.326.68 ± 2.290.031
Preoperative ODI41.38 ± 15.4448.28 ± 17.050.00253.05 ± 16.4736.74 ± 12.20< 0.001
  1. Mean ± standard deviation; BMI, body mass index; level of surgery, how many segments the surgery involved; PRO score method divided the patients into favorable and unfavorable outcome groups by ODI scores ≤22 and ODI scores > 22, respectively; MCID method divided the patients into more and less-improved outcome groups based on a decrease in ODI scores by greater than 12.8 or less; VAS Visual analog scale (0–10); ODI (%) Oswestry disability index (0–100)