Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics of the randomized controlled trials included in the meta-analysis

From: Open versus endoscopic carpal tunnel release: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

AuthorYearRegionGroups, sample sizes, and techniquesFollow-up intervalOutcomes
Agee et al. [28]1992USOCTR (n = 65): conventional release
ECTR (n = 82): one-portal (2 cm)
1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 26 week(s)Return of hand use for ADL, time to RTW, grip strength, pinch strength, lateral/key and pulp strength, SW monofilament test, Phalen’s wrist flexion test, Tinel’s test, scar tenderness, radial and ulnar pillar tenderness, record of medication use, complications
Atroshi et al. [9]2006SwedenOCTR (n = 65): 4 cm
ECTR (n = 63): two-portal (1 cm)
3, 6 weeks;
3, 12 months
Pain, time to RTW, BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, SF-12, sensation, grip strength, key pinch strength, DL, quality of life, SW monofilament test, 2PD test, complications
Atroshi et al. [29]2009SwedenOCTR (n = 63): 4 cm
ECTR (n = 63): two-portal (1 cm)
1, 5 year(s)Operative time, satisfaction rating, symptom relief, BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, pain score, complications
Atroshi et al. [25]2015SwedenOCTR (n = 61): 4 cm
ECTR (n = 63): two-portal (1 cm)
1, 11–16 year(s)BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, pain score, numbness and tingling, satisfaction score, quick DASH, pain scale, complications
Aslani et al. [30]2012IranOCTR (n = 36): conventional release
OCTR (n = 28): mini-incision
ECTR (n = 32): two-portal (length NR)
4 weeks;
4 months
Numbness, nocturnal pain, wrist pain, weakness and stiffness, Tinel’s test, Phalen’s wrist flexion test, EMG, NCV, strength to grasp, time to RTW and ADL, satisfaction rating, operative time, complications
Brown et al. [31]1993USOCTR (n = 82): conventional release
ECTR (n = 78): two-portal (2 cm)
3, 6, 12 weeks2PD test, SW monofilament test, APB strength, thenar atrophy, grip strength, key pinch strength, pain, numbness, paresthesia, weakness, Tinel’s test, Phalen’s wrist flexion test, interstitial carpal tunnel pressure, satisfaction rating, time to RTW, rate of ADL impairment, ADL score, operative time, hospital cost, complications
Dumontier et al. [32]1995FranceOCTR (n = 40): conventional release
ECTR (n = 56): two-portal (Chow [12])
2 weeks;
1, 3, 6 month(s)
Paresthesia, pain, time to RTW, grip strength, finger mobility, complications
Ejiri et al. [33]2012JapanOCTR (n = 50): 3 cm vertical incision
ECTR (n = 50): one-portal (Okutsu et al. [13])
1, 3 month(s)Paresthesia, nighttime pain, impairment of ADL, APB-DL, SW monofilament test, 2PD test, grip strength, pinch strength, key pinch strength, complications
Erdmann [34]1994UKOCTR (n = 52): NR (short length)
ECTR (n = 53): two-portal (Chow [12])
1, 2 week(s);
1, 3, 6 month(s);
1 year
Grip and pinch strength, time to normal grip strength, time to normal pinch strength, time to RTW, ADL, time to relief of symptoms, median nerve motor and sensory DL, VAS pain score, complications
Ferdinand and MacLean [35]2002UKOCTR (n = 25): NR
ECTR (n = 25): one-portal
6, 12, 26 weeks;
13 months
VAS scores (numbness, pain, and paresthesia), ADL, return to full activities, time to RTW, thenar muscle strength, lateral pinch strength, grip strength, wrist and finger movement, 2PD test, Jebson score, operative time, satisfaction rating, complications
Gümüştaş et al. [36]2015TurkeyOCTR (n = 20): NR (Taleisnik [37])
ECTR (n = 21): two-portal (Chow [12])
6 monthsBCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, median nerve motor DL, CMAP, SCV, sensory nerve action potential, complications
Jacobson and Rahme [38]1996SwedenOCTR (n = 16): conventional release
ECTR (n = 16): two-portal (Chow [12])
2, 6, 24 weeksSymptom relief, total number of analgesics, 2PD test, time to RTW, nerve conduction test, complications
Kang et al. [39]2013South KoreaOCTR (n = 52): mini-incision (1.5 cm)
ECTR (n = 52): one-portal (Agee et al. [28])
3 monthsBCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, DASH, complications
Larsen et al. [40]2013DenmarkOCTR (n = 30): classic incision, 7 cm
OCTR (n = 30): short incision, 3 cm
ECTR (n = 30): one-portal (Menon [41])
1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 week(s)VAS (pain), grip strength, range of motion, pillar pain, VAS (paresthesia), time to RTW, complications
Macdermid et al. [42]2003CanadaOCTR (n = 32): conventional release
ECTR (n = 91): two-portal (Chow [12])
1, 6, 12 week(s)Time to RTW, McGill pain questionnaire, key pinch strength, tripod pinch strength, grip strength, symptom severity score (Likert score), sensory threshold, self-report scale, SF-36, complications
Mackenzie et al. [43]2000USOCTR (n = 14): 2.5 cm palmar incision
ECTR (n = 22): one-portal (Agee et al. [28])
1, 2, 4 week(s)Grip strength, pinch strength, BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, complications
Martínez et al. [24]2019SpainOCTR (n = 52): 1 cm mini-incision
ECTR (n = 35): one-portal (Menon [41])
1 week;
1, 6, 12 month(s)
Grip strength, pinch strength, VAS pain score, satisfaction questionnaire, complications
Michelotti et al. [44]2014USOCTR (n = 25): 3 cm palmar incision
ECTR (n = 25): one-portal (Agee et al. [28], 1.5 cm)
2, 4, 8, 12, 24 weeks2PD test, SW monofilament test, thenar strength, grip strength, BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, satisfaction rating, complications
Michelotti et al. [45]2018USOCTR (n = 30): 3 cm palmar incision
ECTR (n = 30): one-portal (Agee et al. [28], 1.5 to 2 cm)
2, 4, 8, 12, 24 weeksVAS pain score, 2PD test, SW monofilament test, thenar strength, grip strength, BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, satisfaction rating, complications
Oh et al. [46]2017South KoreaOCTR (n = 32): mini-incision (1.5 cm)
ECTR (n = 35): one-portal (Agee et al. [28], 1.5 cm)
24 weeksBCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, DASH, CSA, CSA-I, CSA-M, CSA-O, flattening ratio, complications
Rab et al. [47]2006AustriaOCTR (n = 10): two mini-incisions
ECTR (n = 10): two-portal (Chow [12])
2, 4, 6, 12 weeks; 6, 12 monthsVAS pain score, grip strength, pinch strength, key pinch strength, ADL, BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, 2PD, DL, NCV, complications
Saw et al. [48]2003UKOCTR (n = 42): 2 cm palmar incision
ECTR (n = 43): one-portal (Agee et al. [28])
1, 3, 6, 12 week(s)BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, grip strength, VAS pain score, time to RTW, operation time, complications
Sennwald and Benedetti [49]1995SwitzerlandOCTR (n = 22): Sennwald incision
ECTR (n = 25): one-portal (Agee et al. [28], 2–3 cm)
4, 8, 12 weeksGrip strength, key pinch strength, time to RTW, complications
Tian et al. [50]2007ChinaOCTR (n = 36): S-shaped incision
ECTR (n = 34): one-portal (Okutsu et al. [13], 1 cm)
2 yearsSymptom improvement, operation time, hospital stay time, time to RTW, 2PD test, grip strength, scar tenderness, complications
Trumble et al. [51]2002USOCTR (n = 95): palmar incision (3 ~ 4 cm)
ECTR (n = 97): one-portal (Agee et al. [28], 1 cm)
2, 4, 8, 12, 26, 52 weeksBCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, 2PD test, satisfaction rating, grip strength, pinch strength (key pinch, three-jaw), hand dexterity, time to RTW, thenar atrophy, strength of APB, complications
Wong et al. [52]2003Hong KongOCTR (n = 30): mini-incision
ECTR (n = 30): two-portal (Chow [12])
2, 4, 8, 16 weeks; 6, 12 monthsVAS pain score, grip strength, pinch strength, 2PD test, operation time, symptom relief, incision length, complications
Zhang et al. [53]2016ChinaOCTR (n = 72): double small incision
OCTR (n = 65): standard incision (5–7 cm)
ECTR (n = 69): two-portal (Chow [12])
3 yearsBCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, patient satisfaction, VAS pain score, cylindrical strength, lateral strength, pinch strength, grip strength, time to RTW, 2PD test, SW monofilament test, hospital cost, complications
Zhao et al. [54]2004ChinaOCTR (n = 21): S-shaped incision
ECTR (n = 26): one-portal (Okutsu et al. [13], 1 cm)
2 yearsEMG, operation time, hospital stay time, 2PD test, time to RTW, complications
  1. 2PD Two-point Discrimination, ADL activities of daily living, APB abductor pollicis brevis, BCTQ-F Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire Functional Status Scale, BCTQ-S Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire Symptom Severity Scale, CMAP compound muscle action potential, CSA cross-sectional area, CSA-I inlet at the distal wrist crease level, CSA-M the middle of the tunnel at the level of the pisiform, CSA-O the tunnel outlet at the level of the hamate hook, DASH Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire, DL distal latency, ECTR endoscopic carpal tunnel release, EMG electromyography, NCV nerve conduction velocity, NR not reported, OCTR open carpal tunnel release, RTW return to work, SCV sensory conduction velocity, SF-12 12-Item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, SW Semmes-Weinstein, UK United Kingdom, US United States, VAS Visual Analog Scale
\