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Table 1 Predetermined hypotheses for evaluating the responsiveness of the QuickDASH and PSFS

From: Responsiveness and minimal important change of the QuickDASH and PSFS when used among patients with shoulder pain

Hypotheses QuickDASH PSFS
1 The correlation between the QuickDASH/PSFS change score and the GROC is negative and moderate. + +
2 The ES and SRM of the QuickDASH/PSFS are < 0.2 for patients classifying themselves as ‘unchanged’ on the GROC. +
3 The ES and SRM of the QuickDASH/PSFS are ≥0.5 for patients classifying themselves as ‘much improved’ on the GROC. + +
4 The correlation between the QuickDASH change score and the PSFS change score is moderate (> 0.30 and < 0.60).
Since both these PROMs measure the same construct (i.e. disability/function), we expected the magnitude of this correlation to be moderate.
+ +
5 The correlation between the QuickDASH/PSFS change score and the NRS change score is moderate (> 0.30 and < 0.60).
This hypothesis is based on the following research literature showing that PSFS correlates moderately with the NRS in upper extremity patients [5, 36].
+
6 The correlation between the NRS and QuickDASH change score is higher (at least 0.1) than the correlation between the NRS and PSFS change score.
Based on a recent study [35], and the understanding that the QuickDASH emphasise the construct of pain higher than the PSFS, we expected it to correlate higher with the NRS.
+ +
7 The correlation between the QuickDASH/PSFS change score and the SQK change score is moderate (> 0.30 and < 0.60).
This hypothesis is based on previous studies showing that fear of movement scales correlates moderately with shoulder disability scores [47, 48].
+ +
8 The correlation between the WA and PSFS change score is higher than the correlation between the WA and QuickDASH change score.
Recent studies show that shoulder patients report work/employment as PSFS items [6, 17]. The QuickDASH disability questionnaire used in this study does not capture work in a direct way [10]. Therefore, we expected lower correlation between the WA and QuickDASH compared to the correlation of WA and PSFS.
+ +
9 The correlation between the QuickDASH/PSFS change score and the HSCL-25 change score is low (< 0.30).
This rationale is based on previous studies showing that QuickDASH and PSFS correlates low with mental health component scores [49,50,51]. The Norwegian version of HSCL-25 has shown strong correlation with mental health scores [52].
+
  n (%) 7/9 (77.8) 8/9 (88.9)
  1. Abbreviations: – = unmet hypothesis; / = not applicable hypothesis; + = met hypothesis; ES = effect size; GROC = global rating of change scale; HSCL-25 = Hopkins Symptom Checklist; NRS = numeric pain rating scale; PSFS = Patient-Specific Functional scale; SRM, standardised response mean; SQK = Single substitute question for kinesiophobia; QuickDASH = Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Hand and Shoulder questionnaire; WA = Workability