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Table 3 Characteristics of studies and intervention details for plantar fasciitis and heel spurs

From: The effects of shockwave therapy on musculoskeletal conditions based on changes in imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression

Author Study design Condition N Mean age ±SD or (range) Mean symptoms duration ± SD or (range), months Area of SWT application Dosage in impulses*EFD (mJ/mm2)/bar No. of sessions Interval between sessions Co- intervention, anesthesia
Bicer (2018) [44] Prospective open design Plantar fasciitis 30 45.23 ± 8.57 > 6 weeks NR 2500*2–3 bars 3 1 week None
Chew (2013) [45] RCT Plantar fasciitis 19 median and interquartile range: 45 (37–53) median and interquartile range: 18 (7–24) SWT delivered under ultrasound guidance to the painful and thickened region of the plantar fascia at the medial calcaneal tubercle. The patient was positioned prone with the feet over the end of the table 2000*0.42 2 1 week Home exercise program, none
Daniel-Lucian (2013) [43] Prospective open design Plantar fasciitis 17 NR > 3 SWT was applied over the calcaneal plantar side, aponeurosis insertion and plantar aponeurosis 4000
EFD is NR
8 Twice a week None
Gerdesmeyer (2015) [46] prospective intra-individual controlled Heel spur 45 53 (28.6–80.1) > 6 SWT localization of the most painful area was achieved with biofeedback mechanism and radiologically controlled. SWT was placed at the origin of the fascia and reached the central calcaneus. 2000*0.32 2 2 weeks None
Hammer (2005) [47] prospective intra-individual controlled Plantar fasciitis 22 51.6 (24–79) 8.8 (6–12) NR 3000*0.2 3 1 week None
Hocaoglu (2017) [48] RCT Plantar fasciitis 36 50.22 ± 8.29 8 (6–24) Patients were in the prone position. SWT was applied on plantar fascia insertion of the calcaneus 2000*0.16 3 1 week None
Lai (2018) [49] RCT Plantar fasciitis 47 54.53 ± 8.62 7.94 ± 2.92 NR 1500*029 2 2 weeks None
Lee (2003) [50] RCT Calcaneal bone spurs 308 NR > 6 SWT was applied from the plantar surface over a 2 cm circular area around the predetermined point of maximal tenderness at the plantar anthesis 1500*0.22 1 or 2 3 months None, yes
Maki (2017) [51] Prospective open design Plantar fasciitis 23 55.3 (16–81) 26.9 (4–300) SWT was applied at the plantar fascia attachment under ultrasonic guidance from the medial calcaneus. A second treatment was performed if symptoms persisted at 3 months 3800*0.36 1 or 2 3 months None
Moretti (2006) [52] Prospective open design Plantar fasciitis 54 35.2 (30–42) > 6 SWT was applied at the medial tubercle of the calcaneus, at the proximal insertion of the plantar fascia or the calcaneal spur, around the point of medial tenderness 2000*0.04 4 1 week None
Saber (2012) [53] RCT Plantar fasciitis 30 34.27 ± 7.19 > 6 SWT was applied in prone position over the area of maximal tenderness and finding by ultrasonography 1000–1500*0.28 2 2 weeks None, yes
Sorrentino (2008) [54] RCT Plantar fasciitis 30 Total sample = 34 women (56 ± 2.4) and 26 men (52 ± 3.7) 4 SWT was applied under ultrasonography guidance to locate the calcaneal insertion of the plantar fascia 2000*0.03 4 1 week None
Ulusoy (2017) [55] RCT Plantar fasciitis 19 54.45 ± 6.9 27 ± 29.79 SWT was applied in the prone position into the areas of the painful heel, insertion of plantar fascia on the medial calcaneal area, and myofascial junction at the dorsum of the heel 2000*2.5-bar 3 1 week Continue previous exercise program, no
Vahdatpour (2012) [56] RCT Plantar fasciitis 20 50.6 ± 10 > 3 SWT was targeted to the maximum local tenderness area 2000 focused+ 2000 radial*0.2 3 1 week Exercise, NSAIDs, and heel pad for both groups, no
Yalcin (2012) [57] Prospective open design Heel spur 108 50.2 ± 11.3 27.4 ± 32.8 SWT was applied in prone position to the marked tender spot 2000*0.4 (4 bar) 5 1 week None
Zhu (2005) [58] Prospective open design Plantar fasciitis 12 (18 ft) 49.9 (33–63) > 6 SWT was applied to the most painful point (2–3 cm diameter) on the heel 1500*18kv 1 NA None, yes
  1. NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NA not applicable, NR not reported