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Table 1 Characteristics of studies and intervention details for rotator cuff calcifying tendinitis

From: The effects of shockwave therapy on musculoskeletal conditions based on changes in imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression

Author (year) Study design N Mean age ±SD or (range) Mean symptoms duration ± SD or (range), months Area of SWT application Dosage in impulses*EFD (mJ/mm2)/bar No. of sessions Interval between sessions Co- intervention, anesthesia
Albert (2007) [20] RCT 40 each group High SWT: 46.6 (31–64)
Low SWT: 47.5 (32–69)
High SWT: 41.2 (6–120)
Low SWT: 36.4 (7–160)
Calcific deposit was identified using fluoroscopy High SWT: 2000*0.45
Low SWT: 2000*0.02
2 14 days None, yes
Cacchio (2006) [21] RCT 45 56.12 ± 1.98 14 ± 4.95 Seated with shoulder abducted at 45o in external rotation, elbow at 90o, SWT was placed in the direction of calcifications. 2500*0.1, pressure of 2.5 bar 4 1 week None
Charrin (2001) [22] Prospective open design 32 49.8 ± 5.9 52.1 ± 48.5 Ultrasound was used to identify the lesions and aimed at the calcific deposit at all times. 2000*0.32 2 or 3 13.4 ± 6.4 days None
Cosentino (2003) [23] RCT 35 51.8 15 (10–20) SWT was placed in the direction of the calcification based on sonographic examination 1200*0.28 4 4–7 days None
Daecke (2002) [24] Prospective comparative design Group A: 56
Group B: 59
49 (28–77) 5 (1–36) years SWT was performed after localization of the calcification in 2 planes by fluoroscopy 2000*0.3 Group A: 1
Group B: 2
1 week None, yes
DeBoer (2017) [25] RCT 14 53 (95%CI 48, 58) > 6 NR 2500*0.1, pressure of 2.5 bar 5 1 week None
DelCastillo-Gonzalez (2016) [26] RCT 80 49 ± 7 NR The calcification was identified by fluoroscopy in seated position 2000* 0.2 8 Twice weekly None
Farr (2011) [27] RCT 15 49.7 ± 9 > 6 The calcific deposit was located by fluoroscopy. The computer calculated angle and distance for maximum precision. Group A: 3200*0.3
Group B: 1600*0.2
Group A: 1
Group B: 2
1 week None, yes
Gerdesmeyer (2003) [28] RCT 48 each High: 51.6 ± 8.5
Low: 47.3 ± 8.5
placebo: 52.3 ± 9.8
High: 42.6 ± 23.2
Low: 42.8 ± 25.2
placebo: 41.3 ± 28.6
Using fluoroscopy in prone position as the shoulder was rotated until the calcific deposit was identified High: 1500*0.32
Low: 6000*0.08
2 14 days All groups received 10 physiotherapy sessions after SWT, no
Hsu (2008) [29] RCT 33 54.4 (30–70) 12.3 (6–72) NR 1000*0.55 2 14 days None, yes
Jakobeit (2002) [30]   80 53.3 > 6 SWT was performed with retroversion and adduction of the shoulder as far as possible under ultrasound monitoring 1800*0.42 1–5 4–6 weeks None, yes
Kim (2014) [31] RCT 29 57.4 (47–78) > 3 SWT was performed in the sitting position by aiming at the maximum sore spot according to anatomic targeting 1000*0.36 3 1 week NSAIDs, no
Kransy (2005) [32] RCT 40 49.4 (32.4–63.5) 30.5 (12–60) In prone position, the calcific deposit had been positioned in the center of the scan unit. 2500*0.36 1 NA None, yes
Loew (1999) [33] RCT 20 each 46 (28–77) 36 The calcification was visualized using fluoroscopy before and at intervals during treatment. Group 1: 2000*0.1
Group 2,3: 2000*0.3
Group 1,2: 1
Group 3: 2
1 week None, yes
Lowe (1995) [34] Prospective open design 20 50 (35–72) > 12 SWT was performed as localization of the calcium deposit was achieved with an image intensifier that was adjusted automatically in two planes. The head was placed in a ventro-lateral position 2000*18–22 kV 2 2 weeks None, yes
Moretti (2005) [35] Prospective open design 54 43 (34–66) > 3 NR 2500*0.11 4 3 days None
Pan (2003) [36] RCT 32 55.21 ± 2.01 24.55 ± 6.45 SWT was positioned at the marked painful area as defined by sonography before each treatment 2000*0.26–0.32 2 14 days None
Pigozzi (2000) [37] Prospective open design 19 38 (18–69) > 2 NR 2000*0.21 8 1 week None
Pleiner (2004) [38] RCT 23 (31) 54 ± 11 > 6 SWT was focused on the point of maximum pain 2000*0.28 2 14 days None
Rompe (1995) [39] Prospective open design 40 47 25 (12–120) SWT was administered once the calcium deposit is situated in the center of the C-arm. 1500*0.28 1 NA None, yes
Rompe (2001) [40] prospective quasi-randomized 50 49.6 ± 7.5 52.6 ± 54.4 SWT was administered once the calcium deposit is situated in the center of the C-arm 3000*0.6 1 NA Active exercise for 4 to 6 weeks, yes
Sabeti-Aschraf (2005) [41] RCT 25 each 52.68 ± 8.19 > 6 In group 1, the angle and distance between the SWT and shoulder were adjusted until the patient reported to the point of maximum tenderness. In group 2, the Lithotrack device was used to locate the calcium deposit in the center of a crosshairs by fluoroscopy in 2 planes. The computer calculated the angle and distance to provide maximum precision. 1000*0.08 3 1 week None
Tornese (2011) [42] RCT 35 52.6 NR Group A (Neutral position): the subject lay supine with shoulder in neutral rotation, the arm placed alongside the trunk and the hand resting on the abdomen
Group B (Hyperextended internal rotation): the subject lay supine with shoulder in hyperextension and internal rotation with the hand placed under the buttock and the palm facing down
1800*0.22 3 1 week None
  1. NSAIDs Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, NA not applicable, NR not reported