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Table 3 Atlases describing the fiber trajectory of lumbar multifidus

From: Inconsistent descriptions of lumbar multifidus morphology: A scoping review

Author year Method2 Spine Level L1 Fiber trajectory
Origin Insertion
[56] A.M. Gilroy 2014 1 C2-S5 D C2-sacrum: transverse and spinous processes with crossing to 2 to 4 vertebra
[57] M. Schuenke 2010 1 C2-sacrum D Courses between the transversus and spinous processes (2-4 vertebras) or all cervical vertebras most fully developed in the lumbar spine.
[58] K.L. Moore 2010 1 C4 - sacrum D Origin: LM arises from the posterior sacrum, PSIS of the ilium, aponeurosis of erector spinae, sacroiliac ligaments mammillary processes of lumbar vertebras, transverse processes of T1-T3, articular processes of C4-C7 distal attachment: thickest in the lumbar region. fibers pass obliquely super medially to the entire length of spinous processes, located 2-4 segments, superior to the proximal attachment.
[60] K.L. Moore 2011 1 C4-sacrum D LM origin: arises from the posterior sacrum, PSIS of the ilium, aponeurosis of erector spinae, sacroiliac ligaments, mammillary processes of lumbar vertebras, transverse processes of T1-T3 and articular processes of C4-C7 LM insertion: Thickest in the lumbar region, fibers pass obliquely superomedially to the entire length of spinous processes of vertebras located 2-4 segments superior to the origin.
[70] W. Dauber 2006 1 C1-sacrum D LM: sacrum, processes mammillary of vertebras. Thoracic multifidus: transverse processes. Cervical multifidus: caudal processes of cervical vertebras. LM: spinous processes L5-L1. Thoracic multifidus: spinous processes T12-T1. Cervical multifidus: spinous processes C7-C2.
[65] R.L. Drake 2010 1 T1-sacrum D Sacrum, the origin of erector spinae, PSIS, mammillary processes of lumbar vertebras, transverse processes of thoracic vertebras, and articular processes of lower four cervical vertebras The base of spinous processes of all vertebras from L5 to C2 (axis)
[61] S. Standring 2008 1 C2-sacrum D At each segmental level multifidus is formed by several fascicles that arise from the caudal side of the lateral surface of the spinous process and from the caudal side of its tip. They radiate caudally to insert into the transverse elements of vertebrae two, three, four and five levels below (Machintosh et al. 1986). These sites are represented at lumbar levels by the mammillary processes. Fascicles that extend beyond the fifth lumbar vertebra insert into the dorsal surface of the sacrum. The longest fascicles from the first and second lumbar vertebras insert into the dorsal segment of the iliac cest. From each spinous process, the shortest fascicles pass inferiorly and laterally to their insertion; the longer fascicles assume a progressively steeper course and are arranged progressively more medially. These fascicles from a given segment are flanked and overlapped dorsolateral by fascicles from successively higher segments, an arrangement that endows the intact muscle with a laminated structure.
[25] M. Schunke 2010 1 C2-sacrum D Origin and insertion: multifidus run between transverses processes and spinous processes (across 2 to 4 vertebras) of the whole spine (C2 to the sacrum). LM is strongest developed in the lumbar spine.
[67] W. Platzer 2012 1, 2 C2-sacrum D M. multifidus runs from the sacrum to C2. The muscle fibers arise separately from the superficial tendon of m. longissimus of the dorsal plan of sacrum, transverse processes of thoracic vertebras and the articular processes of C2-C7.
  1. 1 L=Location; D = Deep
  2. 2 1 = MRI; 2 = USI