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Table 4 Summary of findings table including GRADE

From: Functional outcomes and complications of intramedullary fixation devices for Midshaft clavicle fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Device Outcome No. of Studies No. of Clavicles Effect estimate (95%CI)) Quality of evidence (GRADE)
Rockwood Pin & Hagie Pin
  Hardware Irritation 7 253 0.22 (0.13–0.35) LOW
  Infection 7 287 0.09 (0.05–0.16) LOW
  Soft Tissue Problems 7 207 0.09 (0.06–0.13) LOW
  Pain 4 172 0.06 (0.02–0.20) VERY LOW
  Hardware Failure 7 216 0.06 (0.03–0.10) LOW
  Nonunion 6 191 0.00 (0.00–0.04) LOW
  Scar Numbness 4 173 0.05 (0.02–0.09) VERY LOW
  Delayed Union 4 166 0.02 (0.01–0.06) VERY LOW
TEN
  CMS 29 1270 94.40 (93.43–95.37) HIGH
  DASH 15 647 4.65 (2.61–6.68) HIGH
  Hardware Irritation 30 1273 0.20 (0.14–0.26) MODERATE
  Protrusion 25 1105 0.12 (0.08–0.18) MODERATE
  Malunion 3 193 0.07 (0.04–0.11) LOW
  Soft Tissue Problems 8 406 0.04 (0.03–0.08) VERY LOW
  Pain 3 136 0.04 (0.02–0.09) VERY LOW
  Nonunion 36 1436 0.03 (0.02–0.04) MODERATE
  Hardware Failure 19 800 0.03 (0.02–0.05) LOW
  Delayed Union 6 265 0.03 (0.02–0.06) VERY LOW
  Infection 29 1084 0.02 (0.01–0.03) MODERATE
Sonoma CRx
  CMS 5 167 94.03 (92.31–95.76) MODERATE
  DASH 3 99 9.16 (3.94–14.37) MODERATE
  Cosmetic Dissatisfaction 3 92 0.06 (0.02–0.17) VERY LOW
  Hardware Failure 6 191 0.04 (0.02–0.08) LOW
  Infection 6 191 0.03 (0.01–0.07) LOW
  Nonunion 6 191 0.00 (0.00–0.04) LOW
Threaded Pin
  Infection 3 106 0.01 (0.00–0.64) Very Low
  1. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  2. High certainty: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect
  3. Moderate certainty: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different
  4. Low certainty: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect
  5. Very low certainty: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect