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Table 4 Summary of findings table including GRADE

From: Functional outcomes and complications of intramedullary fixation devices for Midshaft clavicle fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

DeviceOutcomeNo. of StudiesNo. of ClaviclesEffect estimate (95%CI))Quality of evidence (GRADE)
Rockwood Pin & Hagie Pin
 Hardware Irritation72530.22 (0.13–0.35) LOW
 Infection72870.09 (0.05–0.16) LOW
 Soft Tissue Problems72070.09 (0.06–0.13) LOW
 Pain41720.06 (0.02–0.20) VERY LOW
 Hardware Failure72160.06 (0.03–0.10) LOW
 Nonunion61910.00 (0.00–0.04) LOW
 Scar Numbness41730.05 (0.02–0.09) VERY LOW
 Delayed Union41660.02 (0.01–0.06) VERY LOW
TEN
 CMS29127094.40 (93.43–95.37) HIGH
 DASH156474.65 (2.61–6.68) HIGH
 Hardware Irritation3012730.20 (0.14–0.26) MODERATE
 Protrusion2511050.12 (0.08–0.18) MODERATE
 Malunion31930.07 (0.04–0.11) LOW
 Soft Tissue Problems84060.04 (0.03–0.08) VERY LOW
 Pain31360.04 (0.02–0.09) VERY LOW
 Nonunion3614360.03 (0.02–0.04) MODERATE
 Hardware Failure198000.03 (0.02–0.05) LOW
 Delayed Union62650.03 (0.02–0.06) VERY LOW
 Infection2910840.02 (0.01–0.03) MODERATE
Sonoma CRx
 CMS516794.03 (92.31–95.76) MODERATE
 DASH3999.16 (3.94–14.37) MODERATE
 Cosmetic Dissatisfaction3920.06 (0.02–0.17) VERY LOW
 Hardware Failure61910.04 (0.02–0.08) LOW
 Infection61910.03 (0.01–0.07) LOW
 Nonunion61910.00 (0.00–0.04) LOW
Threaded Pin
 Infection31060.01 (0.00–0.64) Very Low
  1. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  2. High certainty: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect
  3. Moderate certainty: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different
  4. Low certainty: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect
  5. Very low certainty: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect