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Table 5 Univariate analysis, unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for MSD in the upper quarter of the body and lumbar regions

From: Musculoskeletal disorders and their associations with health- and work-related factors: a cross-sectional comparison between Swedish air force personnel and army soldiers

MSD cases (yes/no) Upper quarter p-value Lumbar region p-value
139/211a 104/247
n OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Occupation
 Air force personnel 166 3.44 2.19–5.39 <.01 2.15 1.35–3.43 <.01
 Deployed soldiers 185 1.0 (ref)     
Age (years) (cont.) 351 1.04 1.01–1.07 <.01 1.05 1.02–1.08 <.01
Height (cm) (cont.) 344 0.97 0.93–1.00 .07 1.03 0.99–1.08 .14
BMI (kg/m2) (cont.) 344 0.76 0.92–1.13 .45 0.97 0.87–1.08 .59
Physical activity
 Low/inactive 13 0.91 0.27–3.04 .87 2.10 0.64–6.97 0.22
 Active 76 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
 Highly active 259 0.93 0.51–1.56 .78 1.00 0.57–1.75 .99
Uses Smokeless tobacco
 Yes 106 0.67 0.41–1.10 .10 0.71 0.55–1.50 .71
 No 240 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
Smoker
 Yes 15 0.99 0.34–2.85 .99 1.18 0.39–3.54 .77
 No 328 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
Motivated
 Yes 341 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
 No 4 4.75 0.49–46.15 . 18 2.46 0.34–17.67 .37
Mentally prepared
 Yes 347 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
 No 2 Err.    Err.   .99
Physically prepared
 Yes 318 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
 No 28 1.17 0.54–2.56 .69 .972 0.41–2.29 .95
Physical health
 Excellent 159 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
  < Excellent 191 1.90 1.23–2.95 <.01 2.11 1.31–3.41 <.01
Mental health
 Excellent 265 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
  < Excellent 84 1.52 0.93–2.50 .10 1.37 0.81–2.31 .24
Physical environment
 Excellent 183 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
  < Excellent 166 1.86 1.21–2.87 .01 1.31 0.82–2.07 .26
Social environment
 Excellent 218 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
  < Excellent 131 1.56 1.01–2.43 .05 1.30 0.81–2.07 .28
Work ability
 Excellent 266 1.0 (ref)   1.0 (ref)  
  < Excellent 83 1.29 0.79–2.13 .31 1.21 0.71–2.06 .48
  1. Numbers in bold indicate independent variables that are significantly associated with the dependent variable (p < 0.20), and carried forward to the following multiple analysis. “Motivated” was not carried forward to the multiple analysis due to missing values (n = 5). Upper quarter: neck, shoulder and thoracic region. MSD cases: Reported musculoskeletal disorder in the last year. BMI Body mass index, CI Confidence Interval. a: Data missing from one soldier regarding shoulder MSD