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Table 2 Comparison between baseline and latest follow-up AOFAS-AHS in the nonoperative and operative groups. The results are expressed as estimated means

From: Operative versus nonoperative treatment in children with painful rigid flatfoot and talocalcaneal coalition

Clinical outcomeGroup A (nonoperative)Group B (operative)p-value
baselinefollow-upMDbaselinefollow-upMD
AOFAS-AHS pain28 (26–29)30* (28–32)2 (− 1–5)28 (26–30)37** (34–39)9 (6–12).002
AOFAS-AHS function42 (41–43)43* (41–45)1 (− 1–3)42 (40–43)47** (45–49)6 (4–8).04
AOFAS-AHS alignment1 (0–2)5** (4–6)4 (3–6)1 (0–2)10** (9–11)9 (7–10).001
AOFAS-AHS total70 (68–73)78** (74–82)8 (3–12)71 (68–73)94** (89–98)24 (19–29)< .0005
  1. The estimated means were adjusted by inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) and follow-up duration (covariates were calculated at 6.5 years of follow-up), using the patient as random effect to avoid violation of the principle of independence in bilateral cases. 95% confidence interval of the estimated mean is reported in brackets
  2. MD = Mean Difference between baseline and latest follow-up AOFAS-AHS
  3. The asterisks refer to the statistical difference between baseline and follow-up values within the same group. *: difference is significant at p < .05. **: difference is significant at p < .0005
  4. The P-value in the last column is referred to the statistical difference between the MD of the two groups