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Table 1 Diagnostic criteria for delirium. Confusion Assessment Method (CAM, adapted from Inouye et al. [23]) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5, adapted from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition [24].) were used to diagnose delirium

From: Pre-operative hemoglobin level and use of sedative-hypnotics are independent risk factors for post-operative delirium following total knee arthroplasty

Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)
- Clinical features 1 and 2 are required in addition to either 3 or 4.
Feature 1: Acute onset and fluctuating course of mental status
Feature 2: Inattention
Feature 3: Disorganized thinking
Feature 4: Altered level of consciousness
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
- All criteria (A-E) must be met.
A. Disturbance in attention and awareness
B. Acute onset with fluctuation in severity
C. An additional disturbance in cognition
D. The disturbances are not better explained by pre-existing cognitive disorders
E. There is evidence of a direct physiological consequence or multiple etiologies