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Table 2 Characteristics of 11 papers investigating biomarkers related to the gastrointestinal microbiome in subjects with fibromyalgia

From: Determining the association between fibromyalgia, the gut microbiome and its biomarkers: A systematic review

Author (Year) Country Cohort Study Type FMS criteria Controls
n, Type
Biomarker/s Quality Assessment %
N (% female) Age
Pimentel (2004) [17] USA 42 (86) 46.6 ± 0.3 Case-control ACR 1990 22 IBS SIBO 53.1
Michalsen (2005) [18] Germany 35 (91) 52.0 ± 10.0
51.6 ± 13.3a
Case-control ACR 1990 16 RA Stool culture
Stool pH
sIgA
56.3
Goebel (2008) [19] Germany 40c (80) 48 ± 11 Case-control ACR 1990 57 HC
17 CRPS
H. pyloriBacteria (serum antibodies)Intestinal permeability 75.0
Akkaya (2011) [20] Turkey 65 (100) 36.21 ± 7.42 Case-control ACR 1990 41 HC H. pylori 75.0
Olama (2013) [21] Egypt 100 (100) 33.2 ± 4.36 Case-control ACR 1990 100 HC H. pylori 81.3
Rodrigo (2013) [22] Spain 104 (89) 50 ± 8b Case-control ACR 1990 125 IBS H. pylori 75.0
Gezici (2014) [23] Turkey 32 (88) 38.5 ± 8.6 Prospective ACR 1990 H. pylori 43.8
Malatji (2017) [24] South Africa 18 (100) 45.5 Case-control ACR 1990 11 FC
10 MC
41 YC
Metabolomics 75.0
Malatji (2019) [25] South Africa 17 (100) 45.5 (ns) Case-control ACR 1990 11 FC
10 MC
41 YC
Metabolomics 75.0
Clos-Garcia (2019) [26] Spain 105 (70) 52.52 ± 10.3 Case-control ACR 1990 54 HC Microbiome
Metabolomics
81.3
Minerbi (2019) [27] Canada 77 (100) 46 ± 8 Case-control ACR 2016 11 FC
20 HM
48 UC
Microbiome
Metabolites
87.5
  1. Key: ACR American College of Rheumatology; FMS Fibromyalgia; JB Joanna Briggs; ns not stated; IBS irritable bowel syndrome; SIBO small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; RA rheumatoid arthritis; HC healthy controls; CRPS chronic regional pain syndrome; FC family controls; MC matched controls; YC young controls; HM household members; UC unrelated controls; a = age (SD) of FMS in group B; b = age of IBS cohort 51 ± 8; c = 40 FMS patients, serology data for 33.