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Table 3 Outcomes with statistically significant post-intervention differences, as a result of completing the exercise intervention

From: Exercise prescription for weight management in obese adults at risk for osteoarthritis: synthesis from a systematic review

StudyBody Composition (pre-measure vs post-measure; % change)Physical Function (pre-measure vs post-measure; % change)
Arad, DiMenna, Thomas, et al. [17]Visceral Adipose Tissue (L)
• Control (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 1.2 ± 0.6; − 8%)
• Exercise (1.3 ± 0.7 vs 1.1 ± 0.6; − 15%
Gas Exchange Threshold (L/min)
• Control (0.87 ± 0.35 vs 0.91 ± 0.0.37; 5%)
• Exercise (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 1.29 ± 0.34; 33%)
Blue, Smith-Ryan, Trexler and Hirsch [18] Muscle cross-sectional area (cm2)
• Control (22.18 ± 8.58 vs 21.84 ± 8.37; − 2%)
• Exercise (21.93 ± 7.04 vs 25.10 ± 7.87; 14%)
Chiu, Ko, Wu, et al. [19]Body Weight (kg)
• Control (89.83 ± 4.38 vs 90.57 ± 4.40; 1%)
• Exercise (84.38 ± 2.71 vs 77.66 ± 2.33; − 7%)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
• Control (30.38 ± 0.86 vs 30.64 ± 0.88; 1%)
• Exercise (29.43 ± 0.56 vs 27.08 ± 0.39; − 8%)
Body Fat (%)
• Control (33.32 ± 1.07 vs 33.54 ± 1.20; 1%)
• Exercise (34.50 ± 1.78 vs 30.53 ± 1.60; − 12%)
Fat mass (kg)
• Control (30.03 ± 1.99 vs 30.48 ± 2.07; 1%)
• Exercise (29.04 ± 1.70 vs 23.60 ± 1.29; − 19%)
Cardiorespiratory Endurance Index
• Control (55.30 ± 1.80 vs 54.78 ± 1.71; − 1%)
• Exercise (56.82 ± 3.12 vs 64.24 ± 3.26; 13%)
Domene, Moir, Pummell, Knox and Easton [20]aBody Fat (%)
• Control (Δ = 0; 0%)
• Exercise (Δ = -1.2; − 4%)
VO2max (mL/kg/min)
• Control (Δ = -0.7; − 3%)
• Exercise (Δ = 3.1; 11%)
Ross, Dagnone, Jones, et al. [21]Weight (kg)
• Control (96.7 ± 9.0 vs 96.8; 0%)
• Exercise (101.5 ± 7.7 vs 94.0; − 7%)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
• Control (30.7 ± 1.6 vs 30.7; 0%)
• Exercise (32.3 ± 1.9 vs 29.9; − 7%)
Total Fat (kg)
• Control (30.5 ± 4.5 vs 29.9; − 2%)
• Exercise (33.1 ± 5.5 vs 27.0; − 18%)
Visceral Fat (kg)
• Control (4.1 ± 1.7 vs 4.1; 0%)
• Exercise (3.9 ± 1.0 vs 2.8; − 28%)
VO2max (L/min)
• Control (3.7 ± 0.8 vs 3.7; 0%)
• Exercise (3.8 ± 0.8 vs 4.3; 12%)
Svensson, Eek, Christiansen and Wisén [14] SF-36 Function (points)
• Control (43.0 ± 8.2 vs 43.1 ± 10.5; 0%)
• Exercise (48.6 ± 9.8 vs 50.5 ± 8.2; 4%)
Utter, Nieman, Shannonhouse, Butterworth and Nieman [22] VO2max(ml/kg/min)
• Control (22.2 ± 0.9 vs 23.2 ± 0.9; 5%)
• Exercise (23.1 ± 0.7 vs 26.6 ± 0.9; 15%)
  1. aDomene et al. provided change, rather than absolute values for pre and post anthropometric data
  2. SF-36: 36-Item Short Form Survey. VO2max: Maximal Oxygen Uptake